The purpose of this study was to assess retrieval strategy in incidental, intentional, and inclusion tests with word-fragment cues following a levels-of-processing manipulation at study. The results of Exp. 1 showed small levels-of-processing effects in incidental tests, and most subjects reported involuntary rather than voluntary retrieval of study-list words. In an intentional test, although levels of processing had a much greater effect, quite a few subjects also reported involuntary rather than voluntary retrieval of study-list words, and these subjects showed a smaller effect of levels of processing than subjects reporting voluntary retrieval. These results suggest that subjects given instructions for both voluntary and involuntary retrieval of study-list words in an inclusion test might not in fact attempt voluntary retrieval at all, but simply adopt an involuntary retrieval strategy. The results of Exp. 2 provided evidence to support this suggestion. The general implication is that where “test contamination” refers to subjects' failure to use retrieval strategies in accordance with test instructions, inclusion tests can be contaminated, as well as incidental or intentional tests, and that it is always necessary to obtain converging evidence about the actual strategies subjects use.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bennett, C. A., & Franklin, N. L. (1954). Statistical analysis in the chemistry and the chemical industry. New York: Wiley.
Bowers, J. S., & Schacter, D. L. (1990). Implicit memory and test awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 404–416.
Challis, B. H., & Brodbeck, D. R. (1992). Levels of processing affects priming in word fragment completion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18, 595–607.
Ebbinghaus, H. (1964). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology. (H. A. Ruger & C. E. Bussenius, Trans). New York: Dover Press. (Original work published 1885)
Erickson, J. R., Gaffney, C. R., & Heath, W. P. (1987). Difficulty and familiarity norms for 192 single solution word fragments. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 19, 370–376.
Graf, P., & Mandler, G. (1984). Activation makes words more accessible, but not necessarily more retrievable. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 553–568.
Jacoby, L. L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 513–541.
Jacoby, L. L., Toth, J. P., & Yonelinas, A. P. (1993). Separating conscious and unconscious influences of memory: Measuring recollection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 139–154.
Jacoby, L. L., Yonelinas, A. P., & Jennings, J. M. (1995). The relation between conscious and unconscious (automatic) influences: A declaration of independence. In J. Cohen & J. W. Schooler (Eds.), Scientific approaches to the question of consciousness. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Java, R. I. (1994). States of awareness following word stem completion. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 6, 77–92.
Molander, B. (1984). Imagery, visual and tactual dimensions of imagery, and meaningfulness: Swedish nouns for 858 nouns. (Umeå Psychological Rep. No. 178). Department of Psychology, Umeå University.
Nyberg, L., & Olofsson, U. (1991). Materials for word completion: Subject-generated completions of 198 word stems and a pool of 2159 single-solution word fragments (Umeå Psychological Rep. No. 206). Department of Psychology, Umeå University.
Olofsson, U. (1994). Primed word fragment completion. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Umeå University.
Olofsson, U., & Nyberg, L. (1992). Swedish norms for completion of word stems and unique word fragments. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 33, 108–116.
Richardson-Klavehn, A., & Gardiner, J. M. (1995). Retrieval volition and memorial awareness: An empirical analysis. Psychological Research, 57, 166–178.
Richardson-Klavehn, A., & Gardiner, J. M. (1996). Cross-modality priming in stem completion reflects conscious memory, but not voluntary memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3, 238–244.
Richardson-Klavehn, A., Gardiner, J. M., & Java, R. I. (1994). Involuntary conscious memory and the method of opposition. Memory, 2, 1–29.
Richardson-Klavehn, A., Gardiner, J. M., & Java, R. I. (1996). Memory: Task dissociations, process dissociations, and dissociations of consciousness. In G. Underwood (Ed.), Implicit cognition (pp. 85–158). Oxford University Press.
Richardson-Klavehn, A., Lee, M. G., Joubran, R., & Bjork, R. A. (1994). Intention and awareness in perceptual identification priming. Memory & Cognition, 22, 293–312.
Roediger, H. L. III, & McDermott, K. B. (1993). Implicit memory in normal human subjects. In H. Spinnler & F. Boller (Eds.), Handbook of Neuropsychology (Vol. 8, pp. 63–131). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Roediger, H. L., III, Weldon, M. S., Stadler, M. L., & Riegler, G. L. (1992). Direct comparison of two implicit memory tests: Word fragment completion and word stem completion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18, 1251–1269.
Schacter, D. L., Bowers, J., & Booker, J. (1989). Intention, awareness and implicit memory: The retrieval intentionality criterion. In S. Lewandowsky, J. C. Dunn, & K. Kirsner (Eds.), Implicit memory: Theoretical issues (pp. 47–65). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Toth, J., P., Reingold, E. M., & Jacoby, L. L. (1994). Toward a redefinition of implicit memory: Process dissociations following elaborative processing and self-generation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 290–303.
About this article
Cite this article
Nyberg, L., Olofsson, U., Gardiner, J.M. et al. Assessment of retrieval strategy in incidental, intentional, and inclusion tests with word-fragment cues. Psychol. Res 59, 231–239 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00439300
- Actual Strategy
- Retrieval Strategy
- General Implication
- Test Instruction
- Strategy Subject