Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 165–176

Regulation of VEGF/VPF expression in tumor cells: Consequences for tumor growth and metastasis

  • Kevin P. Claffey
  • Gregory S. Robinson
Tumor Angiogenesis


Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF) is a multifunctional cytokine which potently stimulates angiogenesis in vivo. VEGF/VPF expression is elevated in pathological conditions including cancer, proliferative retinopathy, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. The angiogenesis associated with human tumors is likely a central component in promoting tumor growth and metastatic potential. The regulation of VEGF/VPF expression during tumor progression may involve diverse mechanisms including activated oncogenes, mutant or deleted tumor suppressor genes, cytokine activation, hormonal modulators, and a particularly effective activator, hypoxia. Understanding the diverse mechanisms by which tumor cells overexpress VEGF/VPF, and which mechanisms are operating in specific tumor types is important for the design of effective anti-cancer therapies.

Key words

angiogenesis cancer hypoxia melanoma metastasis VEGF VPF 



basic fibroblast growth factor


endothelial cell


epidermal growth factor


fetal liver kinase-1


fms-like tyrosine kinase-1


hypoxia inducible factor


kinase domain receptor


platelet-derived growth factor


phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate


transforming growth factor-beta


vascular endothelial growth factor


vascular permeability factor


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin P. Claffey
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gregory S. Robinson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PathologyBeth Israel HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Hybridon, Inc.USA
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, Research NorthBeth Israel HosptialBostonUSA

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