Advertisement

Mycopathologia

, Volume 85, Issue 1–2, pp 97–120 | Cite as

A survey of dermatophytes isolated from human patients in the United States from 1979 to 1981 with chronological listings of worldwide incidence of five dermatophytes often isolated in the United States

  • James T. Sinski
  • Katherine Flouras
Article

Abstract

A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1979 to 1981 in the United States. The survey included 54 locations with data from 40 cities and 2 states. Correlations of these data with that of the other localities of the world were made to illustrate the dynamic epidemiology of several common dermatophytes. The most often isolated dermatophyte in this survey was Trichophyton rubrum having 53.66% of the total for these three calendar years. In a chronological listing of ringworm infections caused by this organism, many areas of the world have reported similar increased incidence of this pathogen. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated 27.85% of the total. A dramatic increase of this pathogen as a cause of tinea capitis has been observed in most cities of the United States. It has been isolated in 25 different countries of the world. The percentage of isolation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 8.56%. This percentage may not be near the true incidence of infection by this dermatophyte because the infections are mild and respond to treatment without the individual seeking medical advice. Since the 1950s the percentage of isolations of the total has dropped for T. mentagrophytes in the United States. Epidermophyton floccosum accounted for 4.36% of the total. In a few areas of the world it causes over 30% of the total of dermatophytoses. Microsporum canis was isolated 3.72% of the total in the United States. It has recently been reported to be the dominant agent of tinea capitis in several South American countries, Tucson, Arizona and Kuwait. Once the dominant pathogen of tinea capitis in children in the United States, it was replaced by Microsporum audouinii before 1960. Today in the United States, M. audouinii only accounts for 0.30% of the total. It is considered eliminated as a pathogen in England. In this survey, isolated less than 1.0% of the total were Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum ferrugineum, Microsporum nanum, Microsporum fulvum and Trichophyton schoenleinii. Trichophyton meginii and Trichophyton terrestre were reported isolated but no numerical data were available.

Keywords

United States Kuwait Dermatophytosis Tinea Capitis South American Country 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adams, A. S. & Riley, K. A., 1954. Tinea capitis: a report of one hundred cases. J. South Carolina Med. Ass. 50: 164–165.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adetosoye, A. I., 1977. Dermatophytosis survey in Lagos State of Nigeria. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. & Hyg. 71: 322–324.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ajello, L., 1945. Observations on the incidence of tinea pedis in a group of men entering military life. Johns Hopkins Med. 77: 440–447.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ajello, L., 1960. Geographical distribution and prevalence of the dermatophytes. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 89: 30–38.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Allen, A. M., Taplin, D., Lowy, J. A. & Twigg, L., 1972. Skin infections in Vietnam. Military Med. 137: 295–301.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allen, A. M. & Taplin, D., 1973. Epidemic Trichophyton mentagrophytes infections in service men. JAMA 226: 864–867.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Allen, A. M. & Taplin, D., 1974. Skin infections in Eastern Panama. Amer. J. Trop. Med. and Hyg. 23: 950–956.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allred, B. J., 1982. Dermatophyte prevalence in Wellington, New Zealand. Sabouraudia 20: 75–77.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alteras, I., 1972. Tinea capitis by Microsporum gypseum. Mycopathologia et Myc. Appl. 47: 129–134.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alteras, I. & Cojocaru, I., 1973. A short review on tinea pedis by dermatophytes. Mykosen 16: 229–237.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alteras, I. & Lehrer, N., 1977. A critical survey of 1000 cases of dermatophytosis in the Tel Aviv Area during 1970–1975. Mycopathologia 62: 121–124.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aly, R., 1980. Incidence of dermatophytes in the San Francisco Bay Area. Dermatologia 161: 97–100.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blank, F., 1962.. Human favus in Quebec. Dermatologica 125: 369–381.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Blank, F., Mann, S. J. & Reale, R. A., 1974. Distribution of dermatophytosis according to age, ethnic group and sex. Sabouraudia 12: 352–361.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blank, F. & Strachan, A. A., 1962. Infections due to Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton sulfureum in Rural Eastern Quebec. Mycopathologia et Myc. Appl. 18: 207–212.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Blaschke-Hellmessen, R., Buchner, S., Herklotz, R. & Boye, E., 1973. (Familial group diseases caused by Microsporum canis Bodin 1902 in the District of Dresden). Dermatol. Monatsschr. 159: 391–397.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bojanovsky, A., 1977. (Small epidemic in Mannheim caused by Microsporum canis Bodin). Mykosen 20: 389–392.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bridger, R. C., 1979. Superficial mycoses in a Southern New Zealand District. Sabouraudia 17: 107–112.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brinkmann, U. K., 1971. (Dermatomycosis in the Highlands of Ethiopia). Z. Tropenmed. Parasit. 22: 17–36.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buchvald, J., 1976. (Mycological investigation of anthropozoonotic microsporosis (Microsporum canis Bodin, 1902) (First occurrence in Slovakia). Cesk. Dermatol. 5: 36–40.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cabrita, J. & Figueiredo, M. M., 1973. Dermatophytes in Portugal. Sabouraudia 11: 21–29.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Caprilli, F., Mercantini, R., Marsella, R. & Forotti, E., 1980. Etiology of ringworm of the scalp, beard and body in Rome, Italy. Sabouraudia 18: 129–135.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Caretta, G., Del Frate, G., Picco, A. M. & Mangiarotti, A. M., 1981. Superficial mycoses in Italy. Mycopathologia 76: 27–32.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chernosky, M. E., Friedman, L. & Krafchuk, J. D., 1956. The growing problem of tinea capitis due to Trichophyton tonsurans. Bull. Tulane Univ. Med. Fac. 16: 31–35.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chmel, L., 1980. Zoophilia dermatophytes and infection in man. Medical Mycology, Zbl. Bakt. Suppl. 8: 61–66. Preusser (eds.) Fischer Verlag. Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chretien, J. H., Esswein, J. G., Sharpe, L. M., Kiely, J. J. & Lyddon, F. E., 1980. Efficacy of undecylenic acid-zinc undecylenate powder in culture positive tinea pedis. Intern. J. Dermatol. 19: 51–54.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Crissey, J. T. & Martin, R., 1960. A new form of scalp ringworm in Western New York. New York State J. Med. 60: 679–682.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Davies, R. R., 1968. Mycological tests and onychomycosis. J. Clin. Path. 21: 729–730.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dion, W. M. & Kapica, L., 1975. Isolation of dermatophytes, Candida species and systemic fungi from dermatologic specimens in Montreal, 1963 to 1973. CMAJ. 112: 712–716.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Downing, J. G., Baird, J. W. & Paci, D., 1950. Fungous diseases in the Boston Area. New England J. Med. 243: 564.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Duperrat, B., Badillet, G. & Toan, N.-D., 1968. (Incidence of Epidermophyton floccosum in the Paris Area). Ann. Dermatol. et Syphiligraphie, Paris 95: 39–48.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dvorak, J. & Otcenasek, M., 1975. Comparative epidemiology of mycoses caused by zoophilic dermatophytes and an anthropophilic species of Trichophyton rubrum. Cesk. Dermatol. 50: 135–139.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dvoretzky, I., Semah, D., Sommer, B. & Fisher, B. K., 1978. Microsporum canis infection: first epidemic in Israel. Sabouraudia 16: 79–81.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    English, M. P., 1980. Ecological aspects of dermatophytes regarded essentially as anthropophilic. Medical Mycology. Zbl. Bakt. Suppl. 8: 53–59. Preusser(eds.) Fischer Verlag. Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    English, M. P. & Gibson, M. D., 1959. Studies in the epidemiology of tinea pedis, I. Tinea pedis in school children. Brit. Med. J. 1(5135): 1442–1446.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Erwin, C. R. & Wagner, G. R., 1977. Changing pattern of ringworm infections. Wis. Med. J. 76: 128.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Feuerman, E. J., Alteras, I. & Lehrer, N., 1976. Kerion-like tinea capitis and barbae caused by Microsporum gypseum in Israel. Mycopathologia 58: 165–168.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Friedman, L., Derbes, V. J. & Tromavitch, T. A., 1960. Single dose therapy of tinea capitis. AMA Arch. Dermatol. 8: 415–418.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gaethe, G. & Grieshaber, F. C., 1950. Tinea capitis; a survey. New Orleans Med. & Surg. J. 103: 256–258.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gentles, J. C. & Scott, E., 1981. Superficial mycoses in the West of Scotland. Scott. Med. J. 26: 328–335.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Georg, L. K., 1952. Trichophyton tonsurans ringworm — a new public health problem. Public Health Rep. 67: 53–56.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Georg, L. K., Hand, E. A. & Menges, R. A., 1956. Observations on rural and urban ringworm. J. Invest. Dermatol. 27: 335–353.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gilot, B., Dubois, P., Amblard, P., Imbert, R. & Vigny, F., 1971. (Statistical study of Dermatophytes in Northern Dauphine). Soc. Francaise Dermatol. et Syphiligraphie, Bulletin 78: 182–185.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gilot, B., Pautou, G., Groslambert, P., Vigny, F. & Duborel, S., 1971. (Onychomycosis in a closed community in the Northern Alps). Ann. Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee (Paris) 46: 301–320.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gonzalez-Ochoa, A. & Orozco Victoria, C., 1974. Frequency of occurrence of principal dermatophytoses and their causative agents observed in Mexico City. Int. J. Dermatol. 13: 303–309.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gray, H. R., Dalton, J. E. & Starcs, H., 1960. Trichophyton tonsurans infection of the scalp in Central Indiana. J. Indiana State Med. Assn. 53: 75–80.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Green, A. C. & Kaminski, G. W., 1973. Trichophyton rubrum infections in Northern Territory Aborigines. Australas J. Dermatol. 14: 101–120.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Grigoriu, A. & Grigoriu, D., 1974. (Human infections due to Microsporum gypseum in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland). Int. J. Dermatol. 13: 86–89.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hall, F. R., 1966. Ringworm contracted from cattle in Western New York State. Arch. Dermatol. 94: 35–37.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Harris, G. F., 1962. Fungal infection in an infantry battalion in Malaya. Proc. Royal Soc. Med. 55: 562–563.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hironaga, M., Tanaka, S. & Watanabe, S., 1982. Distribution of mating types among clinical isolates of the Microsporum gypseum complex. Mycopathologia 77: 31–35.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Howell, J. B., Wilson, J. W. & Caro, M. R., 1952. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans (sulfureum or crateriforme). A.M.A. Arch. Dermatol. & Syph. 65: 194–205.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ilea, R. V. & Istrate, S., 1981. (Dermatophytes in the Arad Area of Rumania — importance of the nematode Eudiplogaster flagellicaudatus in the life cycle of geophylic dermatophytes). Z. Hautkr. 19: 1281–1288.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Joly, J., Delage, G., Auger, P. & Ricard, P., 1978. Favus. Twenty indigenous cases in the Province of Quebec. Arch. Dermatol. 114: 1647–1648.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Joseph, H. L. & Halde, C., 1955. Tinea capitis due to Trichophyton tonsurans; incidence, diagnosis and epidemiology in the San Francisco Bay Region. California Med. 83: 371–375.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kachni, C. M., Varadyov, A. M. & Pechanov, A. A., 1972. (Occupational epidemic occurrence of geophilic microspora (Microsporum gypseum) in the gardeners). Cesk. Dermatol. 47: 207–213.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kamalam, A. & Thambiah, A. S., 1976. A study of 3891 cases of mycoses in the tropics. Sabouraudia 14: 129–148.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kamalam, A. & Thambiah, A. S., 1980. Tinea capitis an endemic disease in Madras. Mycopathologia 71: 45–51.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Karaoui, R., Selim, M. & Mousa, A., 1979. Incidence of dermatophytosis in Kuwait. Sabouraudia 17: 131–137.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kennou, M. F., 1978. (Dermatophytes found at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis. Apropos of 697 cases). Arch. de Inst. Pasteur (Tunis) 55: 231–245.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Khosa, R. K., Girgla, H. S., Hajini, G. H., Sharma, B. M. & Singh, G. M., 1981. Study of dermatomycoses. Int. J. Dermatol. 20: 130–132.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kligman, A. M., 1955. Tinea capitis due to Microsporum audouinii and Microsporum canis. A.M.A. Arch. Dermatol. 71: 313–337.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kolemen, F., 1981. Dermatophytic flora of Ankara (Turkey). Dermatologica 162: 260–264.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kornblee, L. V. & Villafane, J., 1960. The changing pattern of superficial fungous infection in New York City. Dermatologica 120: 185–190.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kotrajaras, R., 1967. Superficial dermatomycoses in Bangkok, Thailand. Dermatologia Internationalis 6: 104–108.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lavalle, P., 1966. (Tinea pedis in Mexico). Dermatologia Revista Mexicana 10: 313–329.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lehmann, C. F., Pipkin, J. L., & Ressmann, A. C., 1950. Cultural survey of tinea capitis in San Antonio, Texas. Arch. Dermatol. & Syph. 61: 488.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Londero, A. T., Ramos, C. D. & Lopes, J. S., 1970. A ten-year survey of the cutaneous mycoses in the State of Rio Grande Do Sul (Brasil). 1-Dermatophytoses. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 12: 339–342.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    MacKenzie, D. W. R., 1979. Imported fungal infections. Postgraduate Med. J. 55: 595–597.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mahajan, V. M. & Mohapatra, L. N., 1968. Study of human and animal dermatophytoses in rural areas. II. Mykosen 11: 793–798.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Marples, M. J., 1956. The ecology of Microsporum canis Bodin in New Zealand. J. Hyg. 54: 378–387.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Maskin, I. L., Taschdjian, C. L. & Franks, A. C., 1957. The etiology of dermatophytosis. Shift from Trichophyton mentagrophytes to Trichophyton rubrum, 1935–1954. Arch. Dermatol. 75: 66–69.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mata, G. G. & Malta, I., 1959. (Dermatophytosis in Costa Rica. I. Observations of 76 cases). Rev. Biol. Trop. S. Jose 7: 157–190.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    McAleer, R., 1980. Fungal infections of the scalp in Western Australia. Sabouraudia 18: 185–190.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    McAleer, R., 1980. Zoophilic dermatophytes and their natural hosts in Western Australia. Med. J. Aust. 2: 506–508.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    McAleer, R., 1981. Fungal infections of the nails in Western Australia. Mycopathologia 73: 115–120.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    McCaffree, D. L., Fethiere. A. & Blank, F., 1969. Dermatophytic flora of Philadelphia. Dermatologica 138: 115–123.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Meinhof, W. & Schropl, F., 1974. (The frequency of Dermatophytes in a regional diagnostic clinic. A contribution to the epidemiology of dermatophytes). Der Hautarzt 25: 139–142.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mirnek, I. R. & Maleniuk, V. B., 1972. (Etiology and clinical aspects of mycoses of the feet in a hot climate). Voenno Meditsinskii Zh. (Voen. Med. Zh.) 3: 79–81.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mitchell, P. C. & Clayton, Y. M., 1962. Some observations on fungal infections in tropical climates. Fungal infections in Hong Kong (1952). Proc. Royal Soc. Med. 55: 559–564.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mullins, J. F., 1954. Trichophyton tonsurans infection in tinea capitis survey. Arch. Dermatol. & Syph. 69: 438–440.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nath, P. & Agarwal, P. K., 1971. Some observations on mycotic infections in Lucknow. Indian J. Med. Res. 59: 675–679.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nikpoor, N., Buxton, M. W. D. & Leppard, B. J., 1978. Fungal diseases in Shiraz. Pahlavi Med. J. 9: 27–49.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nissaisorakarn. M., 1974. Trichophyton rubrum and species of Candida in Thailand. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 54: 217–219.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Obukhova, A. S., 1973. (Certain little-known factors in the epidemiology of microsporosis caused by Microsporum lanosum). Vestn. Dermatol. Venerol. 47: 36–39.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Onsberg, P., 1979. Dermatophyte species, microscopic and cultural examination. Mycopathologia 67: 153–155.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Padhye, A. A. & Thirumalachar, M. J., 1970. Dermatophytoses in Poona, India. Observations on incidence, clinical features, environmental factors and causal agents studied during 1958 to 1963 at Sassoon Hospitals, Poona. Mycopathologia et Myc. Applicata 42: 369–379.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Philpot, C. M., 1978. Geographical distribution of the dermatophytes: a review. J. Hyg., Camb. 80: 301–313.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pinkerton. M. E., Mullins, J. F. & Shapiro, E. M., 1957. The ecology of superficial fungus infections in Galveston, Texas. Texas Rep. on Bio. & Med. 15: 26–49.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pipkin, J. L., 1952. Tinea capitis in the adult and adolescent. A.M.A. Arch. Dermatol. & Syph. 66: 9–40.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Prevost, E., 1979. Nonfluorescent tinea capitis in Charleston, SC. JAMA 242: 1765–1767.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Price, H. & Taylor, D. R., 1952. Trichophyton tonsurans infection of the scalp. California Med. 76: 283–288.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Prochacki, H., 1970. Mycological flora isolated from people in Poland. Mycopathologia et Myc. Appl. 40: 62–72.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Quilici, M., Ranque, P. H., Dunan, S., Delmont, J., Tounkara, A., Saint-Andre, P., Traore, M. & Buenoa, A. M., 1979. (Panorama of dermatophytes in Mali). Bull. Soc. Path. Exotique et de ses Filiales 72: 20–26.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rebell, G. & Taplin, D., 1970. Dermatophytes, their recognition and identification. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida. 124 pp.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rippon, J. W., 1982. Medical mycology, the pathogenic fungi and the pathogenic actinomycetes. Second Edition. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 842 pp.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rosenthal, S. A., Fine, H. L. & Baer R. L., 1967. Presentday incidence of superficially infecting pathogenic fungi. Arch. Derm. 96: 51–52.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sahin, M. & Yulug, N., 1977. (The agents of superficial fungus infection which are found in and around Ankara). Mikrobiyol. Bull. 11: 35–43.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sanderson, P. H. & Sloper. J. C., 1953. Skin diseases in the British Army in S.E. Asia II: tinea corporis: clinical and pathological aspects, with particular reference to the relationship between T. interdigitale and T. mentagrophytes. Brit. J. Dermatol. 65: 300–309.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Saunders, W., 1964. Superficial fungus infections in Northern New York State II. New York State J. Med. 64: 2536–2538.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Scott, D. B. & Scott, F. P., 1973. Dermatophytoses in South Africa. Sabouraudia 11: 279–282.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Shetsiruli, L. T., 1969. On the clinical course and characteristics of mycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum in Georgia. Mycopathologia 38: 277–287.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sierra de Arroyave, B., Yepes, A., Arenas, J., Santamaria de Uribe, L. & Restrepo-M, A., 1977. (Epidemic outbreak of tinea corporis due to Microsporum gypseum). Mycopathologia 60: 135–138.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sinski, J. T., 1969. Dermatophytes in Tucson, Arizona, 1967 and 1968. Arizona Med. 26: 796–798.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sinski, J. T., 1982. Dermatophytes in Tucson. Arizona, 1967 to 1981. Arizona Med. 39: 638–640.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sisk, J. C., Wooldridge, W. E. & Lamb, J. H., 1953. Etiology of superficial mycoses in Midwestern United States. A.M.A. Arch. Dermatol. & Syph. 68: 681–684.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Strachan, A. A. & Blank, F., 1963. On 1117 Microsporum canis infections in Montreal (1954–1961). Dermatologica 126: 271–290.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Taylor, R. L., Cadigan, F. C., Jr. & Chaicumpa, V., 1973. Infections among Thai gibbons and humans caused by atypical Microsporum canis. Lab. Anim. Sci. 23: 226–231.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Taylor, R. L., Kotrajaras, R. & Jotisankasa, V., 1968. Occurrence of Dermatophytes in Bangkok, Thailand. Sabouraudia 6: 307–311.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Terreni, A. A., 1961. Tinea capitis survey in Charleston, S.C. Arch. Dermatol. 83: 142–145.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Torok, I., Simon, Gy & Pap, M., 1982. Microsporum canis infections in Hungary. Mykosen 25: 42–46.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Vanbreuseghem, R. & De Vroey, C. H., 1970. Geographic distribution of Dermatophytes. Int. J. Dermatol. 9: 102–109.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Velasco Benito, J. A., Martin-Pascual, A. & Garcia Perez, A., 1979. Epidemiologic study of Dermatophytoses in Salamanca (Spain). Sabouraudia 17: 113–123.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Veltman, G., Heymer, Th. & Chen-Shou, T., 1967. (Comparative epidemiological studies of dermatomycosis in the cities of Wurzburg and Bonn and their water sheds). (Part 1), (Part 2), (Part 3). Mykosen 10: 63–72, 123–130, 163–168.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Verhagen, A. R., 1974. Distribution of Dermatophytes causing tinea capitis in Africa. Trop. & Geographical Med. 26: 101–120.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Verma, K. C. & Singh, K., 1974. A study on tinea capitis in Rohtak. Indian J. Med. Res. 62: 1329–1332.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Wagner, N. J. & Winkler, A., 1980. Microsporum infections in the Federal Republik of Germany. Medical Mycology. Zbl. Bakt. Suppl. 8: 351–352. Preusser (eds.) Fischer Verlag. Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Walshe, M. M. & English, M. P., 1966. Fungi in nails. Brit. J. Derm. 78: 198–207.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Weidman, F. D., 1927. Laboratory aspects of epidermophytosis. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 15: 415–450.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • James T. Sinski
    • 1
    • 2
  • Katherine Flouras
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Molecular and Medical Microbiology, College of MedicineUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, College of Arts and SciencesUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations