Chlorella fusca, strain 211-15, cells degreened in a nitrogen-deficient mineral growth medium in the light for 4–6 weeks were regreened for up to 24 hrs in a nitrogen rich medium that leads to synchronous cell division at 24–26 hrs. Structural changes in the plastid membranes during the regreening period were observed by thin section and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Nitrogen-deficient plastids were found to have non-appressed lamellae, prolamellar body-like membrane aggregations, and only 2 types of freeze-fracture face. At this time no photosynthetic oxygen evolution could be demonstrated. After 6 hrs regreening the plastid lamellae had fused to form bands of appressed lamellae and the four types of freeze-fracture face, described previously, were visible. At this time photosynthetic oxygen evolution could be demonstrated. After 24 hrs regreening the plastids had an appearance typical of normally grown Chlorella and had commenced to divide. Supporting evidence for these developmental stages is presented from isolated chloroplast particle fractions.
An unusual type of cell wall proliferation was observed in the nitrogen-deficient Chlorella cells that resulted in the laying down of several walls, each with a trilaminar component.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Anderson, J. M., Goodchild, D. J., Boardman, N. K.: Composition of the photosystems and chloroplast structure in extreme shade plants. Biochim. biophys. Acta (Amst) 325, 573–585 (1974)
Atkinson, A. W., Gunning, B. E. S., John, P. C. L.: Sporopollenin in the cell wall of Chlorella and other algae: Ultrastructure, chemistry, and incorporation of 14C-acetate, studied in synchronous cultures. Planta (Berl.) 107, 1–32 (1972)
Atkinson, A. W., John, P. C. L., Gunning, B. E. S.: The growth and division of the single mitochondrion and other organelles during the cell cycle of Chlorella, studied by quantitative stereology and three dimensional reconstruction. Protoplasma (Wien) 81, 77–109 (1974)
Branton, D., Park, R. B.: Subunits in chloroplast lamellae. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 19, 283–303 (1967)
Budd, T. W., Tjostem, J. L., Duysen, M. E.: Ultrastructure of Chlorella pyrenoidosa as affected by environmental changes. Amer. J. Bot. 56, 540–545 (1969)
Goodenough, U. W., Staehelin, L. A.: Structural differentiation of stacked and unstacked chloroplast membranes. J. Cell Biol. 48, 594–619 (1971)
Griffiths, D. A., Griffiths, D. J.: The fine structure of autotrophic and heterotrophic cells of Chlorella vulgaris (Emerson strain). Plant Cell Physiol. 10, 11–19 (1969)
Grimme, L. H., Boardman, N. K.: Photochemical activities of a particle fraction P1 obtained from the green alga Chlorella fusca. Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun. 49, 1617–1623 (1972)
Grimme, L. H., Porra, R. J.: The regreening of nitrogendeficient Chlorella fusca. I. The development of photosynthetic activity during the synchronous regreening of nitrogen-deficient Chlorella. Arch. Microbiol. 99, 173–179 (1974)
Guérin-Dumartrait, E., Mihara, S., Moyse, A.: Composition de Chlorella pyrenoidosa, structure des cellules et de leurs lamelles chloroplastiques, en fonction de la carence en azote et de la levée de carence. Canad. J. Bot. 48, 1147–1154 (1970)
Klyachko-Gurvich, G. L., Raikov, N. I., Raikova, A. P.: Reversibility of structural changes in Chlorella pyrenoidosa 82 cells induced by nitrogen deficiency. Sov. Plant Physiol. 15, 697–702 (1968)
Klyachko-Gurvich, G. L., Rudova, T. S., Kuznetsova, G. P.: The role played by lipid fatty acids of Chlorella in recovery of cells after nitrogen starvation. Sov. Plant Physiol. 20, 92–99 (1973)
Klyachko-Gurvich, G. L., Zhukova, T. S., Vladimirova, M. G., Kurnosova, T. A.: Comparative characterization of the growth and direction of biosynthesis of various strains of Chlorella under nitrogen deficient conditions. III. Synthesis of fatty acids. Sov. Plant Physiol. 16, 168–171 (1969)
Mayer, F., Czygan, F.-C.: Änderungen der Ultrastrukturen in den Günalgen Ankistrodesmus braunii und Chlorella fusca var. rubescens bei Stickstoffmangel. Planta (Berl.) 86, 175–185 (1969)
McLean, R. J.: Ultrastructure of Spongiochloris typica during senescence. J. Phycol. 4, 277–283 (1968)
Mollenhauer, H. H.: Plastic embedding mixtures for use in electron microscopy. Stain Technol. 39, 111–114 (1964)
Moor, H., Mühlethaler, K.: Fine structure in frozenetched yeast cells. J. Cell Biol. 17, 609–628 (1963)
Nilshammar, M., Walles, B., Kylin, A.: The effect of calcium deficiency on the ultrastructure of the green alga Scenedesmus. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 66, 197–205 (1972)
Oh-Hama, T., Shihira-Ishikawa, I., Hase, E.: Development of photosynthetic activities during the process of chloroplast formation in Chlorella protothecoides. Plant Cell Physiol. 6, 743–760 (1965)
Ojakian, G. K., Satir, P.: Particle movements in chloroplast membranes: quantitative measurements of membrane fluidity by the freeze-fracture technique. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 71, 2052–2056 (1974)
Pohl, P., Passig, T., Wagner, H.: Über den Einfluß von anorganischem Stickstoff-Gehalt in der Nährlösung auf die Fettsäure-Biosynthese in Grünalgen. Phytochemistry 10, 1505–1513 (1971)
Pulich, W. M., Ward, C. H.: Physiology and ultrastructure of an oxygen-resistant Chlorella mutant under heterotrophic conditions. Plant Physiol. 51, 337–344 (1973)
Reger, B. J., Krauss, R. W.: The photosynthetic response to a shift in the chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b ratio of Chlorella. Plant Physiol. 46, 568–575 (1970)
Sane, P. V., Goodchild, D. J., Park, R. B.: Characterization of chloroplast photosystems 1 and 2 separated by a non-detergent method. Biochim. biophys. Acta (Amst.) 216, 162–178 (1970)
Semenenko, V. E., Vladimirova, M. G., Orleanskaya, O. B., Raikov, N. J., Kovanova, E. S.: Physiological characteristics of Chlorella sp. K at high extremal temperatures. II. Alteration in biosynthesis, ultrastructure, and activity of photosynthetic apparatus in Chlorella upon dissociation of cell functions by extreme temperature. Sov. Plant Physiol. 16, 172–181 (1969)
Trukhin, N. V.: Growth and chemical composition of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in absence of nitrogen. Sov. Plant Physiol. 15, 703–709 (1968)
Walne, P. L.: The effects of colchicine on cellular organization in Chlamydomonas. II. Ultrastructure. Amer. J. Bot. 54, 564–577 (1967)
Wanka, F.: Ultrastructural changes during normal and colchicine-inhibited cell division of Chlorella. Protoplasma (Wien) 66, 105–130 (1968)
Zhukova, T. S., Klyachko-Gurvich, G. L., Vladimirova, M. G., Kurnosova, T. A.: Comparative characterization of the growth and direction of biosynthesis of various strains of Chlorella under conditions of nitrogen starvation. II. Formation of carbohydrates and lipids. Sov. Plant Physiol. 16, 79–83 (1969)
About this article
Cite this article
Pyliotis, N.A., Goodchild, D.J. & Grimme, L.H. The regreening of nitrogen-deficient Chlorella fusca . Arch. Microbiol. 103, 259–270 (1975). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00436359
- Chloroplast Structure
- Cell Wall
- Prolamellar Body