, Volume 71, Issue 2, pp 173–179 | Cite as

The leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire in psychopharmacological investigations—a review

  • A. C. Parrott
  • I. Hindmarch
Original Investigations


The Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire comprises ten self-rating 100-mm-line analogue questions concerned with aspects of sleep and early morning behaviour. The questionnaire has been used to monitor subjectively perceived changes in sleep during psychopharmacological investigations involving a variety of psychoactive agents, including sedative-hypnotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, CNS stimulants, and antihistamines.

Dose-related improvements in the self-reported ratings of getting to sleep and perceived quality of sleep were generally associated with reductions in the self-reported levels of alertness and behavioural integrity the morning following the nocturnal administration of sedative hypnotic and anti-anxiety agents. Psychostimulants, on the other hand, impaired subjective ratings of sleep and produced increases in early morning assessments of alertness. Certain antidepressant and antihistaminic agents produced effects similar to the sedative-hypnotics, while others did not affect self-reported aspects of sleep and early morning behaviour.

Key words

Analogue rating scales Benzodiazepines Hypnotics Sleep 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adam K, Allen S, Carruthers-Jones I, Oswald I, Spence M (1976) Mesoridazine and human sleep. Br J Clin Pharmacol 3:157–164Google Scholar
  2. Aitken RCB (1969) Measurement of feedings using visual analogue scales. Proc Royal Soc Med 62:989–993Google Scholar
  3. Bond AJ, Lader MH (1972) Residual effects of hypnotics. Psychopharmacologia 25:117–132Google Scholar
  4. Bond AJ, Lader MH (1973) Residual effects of flurazepam. Psychopharmacologia 32:223–235Google Scholar
  5. Bond AJ, Lader MH (1975) Residual effects of flunitrazepam. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2:143–150Google Scholar
  6. Brězinová V, Oswald I (1972) Sleep after a bedtime beverage. Br Med J 2:431–433Google Scholar
  7. Curry SH, Whelpton R, Scott DF (1977) Changes in reaction time and drug plasma concentrations after nitrazepam and glutethimide. Br J Pharmacol 4:109–114Google Scholar
  8. Firth H (1974) Sleeping pills and dream content. Br J Psychiat 124:547–553Google Scholar
  9. Grundström R, Holmberg G, Hansen T (1978) Degree of sedation obtained with various doses of diazepam and nitrazepam. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 43:13–18Google Scholar
  10. Hart J, Hill HM, Bye CE, Wilkinson RT, Peck AW (1976) The effects of low doses of amylobarbitone sodium and diazepam on human performance. Br J Clin Pharmacol 3:289–298Google Scholar
  11. Herbert M, Johns MW, Dore C (1976) Factor analysis of analogue scales measuring subjective feelings before and after sleep. Br J Med Psychol 49:373–349Google Scholar
  12. Hindmarch I (1975) A 1.4 benzodiazepine, temazepam (K 3917) its effect on some psychological parameters of sleep and behaviour. Arzneim Forsch 25:1836–1839Google Scholar
  13. Hindmarch I (1976) A sub chronic study of the subjective quality of sleep and psychological measures of performance on the morning following night time medication with temazepam. Arzneim Forsch 26:2113–2116Google Scholar
  14. Hindmarch I, Parrott AC (1977) A repeated dose comparison of nomifensine, imipramine and placebo on subjective assessments of sleep and objective measures of psychomotor performance. Br J Clin Pharmacol [Suppl] 4:167–173Google Scholar
  15. Hindmarch I, Parrott AC (1978a) A repeated dose comparison of the, side effects of five antihistamines. Arzneim Forsch 28:483–486Google Scholar
  16. Hindmarch I, Parrott AC (1978b) A repeated dose comparison of clobazam (20, 30 and 40 mg), upon aspects of sleep and early morning behavious. Arzneim Forsch 28:2169–2172Google Scholar
  17. Hindmarch I, Parrott AC (1979) The effects of repeated nocturnal doses of clobazam, dipotassium clorazepate and placebo, on subjective ratings of sleep and early morning behaviour and objective measures of arousal, psychomotor performance and anxiety. Br J Clin Pharmacol 8:325–329Google Scholar
  18. Hindmarch I, Parrott AC (1980) The effects of combined sedative and anxiolytic preparations on subjective aspects of sleep and objective measures of arousal and performance. I. Acute. Arzneim Forsch (in press)Google Scholar
  19. Hindmarch I, Parrott AC (1980) As above. II. Chronic. Arzneim Forsch (in press)Google Scholar
  20. Hindmarch I, Parrott AC, Arenillas L (1977) A repeated dose comparison of dichloralphenazone, flunitrazepam, and amylorbarbitone sodium on aspects of sleep and early morning behaviour in normal subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 4:229–233Google Scholar
  21. Hindmarch I, Parrott AC, Hickey B, Clyde C (1980) An investigation into the effects of repeated doses of temazepam (40 and 60 mg) upon aspects of sleep, early morning behaviour, and psychomotor performance in normal subjects. Arzneim Forsch (in press)Google Scholar
  22. Hindmarch I, Parrott AC, Stonier P (1980) The effects of nomifensine and HOE 8476 upon car driving and related psychomotor performance. Royal Soc Med Int Symp 25:47–54Google Scholar
  23. Johns MW (1971) Methods for assessing human sleep. Arch Int Med 127:484–492Google Scholar
  24. Lader MH, Norris H (1969) The effects of nitrous oxide on the human auditory evoked response. Psychopharmacologia 16:115–127Google Scholar
  25. Lewis SA (1969) Subjective estimates of sleep: an EEG evaluation. Br J Psychol 60:203–208Google Scholar
  26. McDonald DG, King EA (1975) Measures of sleep disturbance in psychiatric patients. Br J Med Psychol 48:49–54Google Scholar
  27. Malpas A, Rowan AJ, Joyce CRB, Scott DF (1970) Persistant behavioural and EEG changes after single doses of nitrazepam and amylobarbitone sodium. Brit Med J II:672–764Google Scholar
  28. Maxwell C (1978) Sensitivity and accuracy of the visual analogue scale: a psycho-physical classroom experiment. Br J Clin Pharmacol 6:13–24Google Scholar
  29. Nicholson AN, Stone BM, Clarke CH (1976) Effect of diazepam and forsazepam (a soluble derivative of diazepam) on sleep in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 3:533–541Google Scholar
  30. Parrott AC, Hindmarch I (1977) Comparative effects of acute doses of three benzodiazepine derivatives — clobazam, nitrazepam, and flurazepam, upon psychomotor performance under different reinforcement conditions. Int Res Commun Sys Med Sci 3:177Google Scholar
  31. Parrott AC, Hindmarch I (1978a) Clobazam A. 1-5 benzodiazepine derivative: Effects upon human psychomotor performance under different levels of task reinforcement. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 232:262–267Google Scholar
  32. Parrott AC, Hindmarch I (1978b) Factor analysis of a sleep evaluation questionnaire. Psychol Med 8:325–329Google Scholar
  33. Parrott AC, Rogers PJ, Brownlie V (1980) The effects of anorexic drugs upon subjective self-evaluations of sleep and early morning alertness. Int Res Commun Sys: Med Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  34. Peck AW, Bye CE, Claridge R (1977) Differences between light and sound sleepers in the residual effects of nitrazepam. Br J Clin Pharmacol 4:101–108Google Scholar
  35. Salkind MR, Silverstone T (1975) A clinical, and psychometric evaluation of flurazepam. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2:223–226Google Scholar
  36. Samuels JG (1964) Sleep disturbance in depressed patients: objective and subjective measures. Br J Psychiat 110:711–719Google Scholar
  37. Warburton DM (1975) Brain behaviour and drugs. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. C. Parrott
    • 1
  • I. Hindmarch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of LeedsLeedsEngland

Personalised recommendations