Quality of Life Research

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 13–20 | Cite as

Quality of life is not negatively affected by diet and exercise intervention in healthy men with cardiovascular risk factors

  • M.-L. Hellénius
  • C. Dahlöf
  • H. Åberg
  • I. Krakau
  • U. de Faire
Research Papers

Abstract

Health-related quality of life was assessed in a diet and exercise intervention study among 157 healthy men aged 35–60 years (mean ± s.d.; 46.2 ± 5.0) with moderately raised cardiovascular risk factors. The men were randomized to four groups, diet (D, n=40), exercise (E, n=39), diet plus exercise (DE, n=39), and no active intervention (controls (C) n=39). Quality of life was measured with two self-administered questionnaires; Subjective Symptoms Assessment Profile and Minor Symptom Evaluation Profile, at baseline and after 1.5, 3 and 6 months. Cardiovascular risk factors were investigated at baseline and after 6 months. As a result of changes in dietary habits and physical exercise in the three intervention groups, several important cardiovascular risk factors were significantly reduced. The quality of life/well-being did not differ between the four groups and did not change significantly in any of the groups during the study. There was, however, a tendency towards fewer gastrointestinal symptoms in group D and fewer cardiac symptoms in group DE. We conclude that advice on lifestyle changes in the form of diet and exercise reduce risk factors in middle-aged men without negative effects on their quality of life.

Key words

Diet exercise intervention quality of life 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    DimenäsE, ÖstergrenJ, LindvallK, DahlöfC, WestergrenG, deFaireU. Comparison of CNS-related subjective symptoms in hypertensive patients treated with either a new controlled release (CR/ZOK) formulation of metoprolol or atenolol. J Clin Pharmacol 1990; 30: S82-S90.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    OsI, BratlandB, DahlöfB, GisholtK, SyvertsenJO, TretliS. Lisinopril or nifedipine in essential hypertension? A Norweigan multicenter study of efficacy, tolerability and quality of life in 828 patients. J Hypertension 1991; 9: 1097–1104.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    PalmerAJ, FletcherAE, RudgePJ, AndrewsCD, CallaghanTS, BulpittCJ. Quality of life in hypertensives treated with atenolol or Captopril: a double-blind crossover trials. J Hypertension 1992; 10: 1409–1416.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    TestaMA, AndersonRB, NackleyJF, HollenbergNK, Quality of Life Hypertension Group. Quality of life and antihypertensive therapy in men. A comparison of captopril with Enalapril. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 907–913.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Åberg H. Life quality in non-pharmacological therapy of hypertension. Scand J Primary Health Care 1990; Suppl. 1: 61–66.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    GranB. Non-pharmacological methods reduce drug use in the treatment of hypertension. Scand J Primary Health Care 1991; 9: 121–128.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    The Treatment of Mild Hypertension Research Group. The treatment of mild hypertension study. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a nutritional-hygenic regimen along with various drug monotherapies. Arch Intern Med 1991; 151: 1413–1423.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    The Expert Panel of the National Cholesterol Education Program, Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. Arch Intern Med 1988; 148: 36–69.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    WHO. Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Report of a WHO Study Group. WHO Technical Report Series 797. Geneva. World Health Organization 1990.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    European Atherosclerosis Society. Prevention of coronary heart disease: Scientific background and new clinical guidelines. Recommendations of the European Atherosclerosis Society prepared by the International Force for Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 1992: 2: 113–156.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    WHO. Comprehensive Cardiovascular Community Control Programmes in Europe. EURO Reports and Studies 106. Copenhagen, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe 1988.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wiklund I. Measuring quality of life in medicine. Scand J Primary Health Care 1990; Suppl. 1: 11–14.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    AndersonRT, AaronsonNK, WilkinD. Critical review of the international assessments of health-related quality of life. Qual Life Res 1993; 2: 369–395.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    NaughtonMJ, WiklundI. A critical review of dimension-specific measures of health-related quality of life in cross-cultural research. Qual Life Res 1993; 2: 397–432.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    HelléniusML, deFaireU, BerglundB, HamstenA, KrakauI. Diet and exercise are equally effective in reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. Results of a randomized controlled study in men with slightly to moderately raised cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis 1993; 103: 81–91.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    HelléniusML, deFaireU, KrakauI, BerglundB. Prevention of cardiovascular disease within the primary health care system—feasibility of a prevention programme within the Sollentuna primary health care catchment area. Scand J Primary Health Care 1993; 11: 68–73.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Becker W. The Swedish household survey 1989. Presented at the sixth European nutrition Conference 1991, Athens, Greece. Abstract in Nutritional Science, New Developments of Consumer Concern.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    BorgG. Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehab Med 1970; 2–3: 92–98.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    DahlöfC, DimenäsE, OlofssonB. Documentation of an instrument for assessment of subjective CNS-related symptoms during cardiovascular therapy. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1989; 3: 919–927.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dahlöf C. Minor Symptoms Evaluation (MSE) Profile—a questionnaire for assessment of subjective CNS-related symptoms. Scand J Primary Health Care 1990; Suppl. 1: 19–25.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dimenäs E. The SSA-profile, an instrument for assessment of subjective symptoms among hypertensives. Scand J Primary Health Care 1990; Suppl. 1: 27–30.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    DimenäsE, WiklundI, DahlöfC, LindvallKG, OlofssonBK, deFaireU. Differences in the subjective well-being and symptoms of normotensives, borderline hypertensives and hypertensives. J Hypertension 1989; 7: 885–890.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schlettwein-GsellD. Nutrition and the quality of life: a measure for the outcome of nutritional intervention? Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55: 1263S-1266S.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arborelius E. How to affect patients lifestyle? The-oretical and practical implications. Soc Sci Med, 1994.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    HjermannI, HolmeI, LerenP. Oslo Study Diet and Antismoking Trial. Am J Med 1986; 80: 7–11.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    HjermannI, ByreKV, HolmeI, LerenP. Effect of diet and smoking intervention on the incidence of coronary heart disease. Report from the Oslo study group of a randomised trial in healthy men. Lancet 1981; ii: 1304–1310.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    ErikssonKF, LindgärdeF. Prevention of type 2 noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by diet and physical exercise. Diabetologia 1991; 34: 891–898.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    SiscovickDS, WeissNS, FletcherRH, LaskyT. The incidence of primary cardiac arrest during vigorous exercise. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 874–877.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    MittlemanMA, MaclureM, ToflerGH, SherwoodJB, GoldbergRJ, MullerJE. Triggering of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion. Protection against triggering by regular exertion. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1677–1683.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    WillichSN, LewisM, LöwelH, ArntzHR, SchubertF, SchröderR. Physical exertion as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1684–1690.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    CurfmanGD. Is exercise beneficial—or hazardous—to your heart? N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1730–1731.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    FriedewaldVE, SpenceDW. Sudden cardiac arrest associated with exercise: The risk-benefit issue. Am J Cardiol 1990; 66: 183–188.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    GordonNF, ScottCB. The role of exercise in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Clin Sports Med 1991; 10: 87–103.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rapid Communications of Oxford Ltd 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • M.-L. Hellénius
    • 1
  • C. Dahlöf
    • 2
  • H. Åberg
    • 3
  • I. Krakau
    • 1
  • U. de Faire
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Karolinska InstituteCentre of General Medicine NVSOStockholmSweden
  2. 2.GLF Medical Research Center ABGothenburgSweden
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Family MedicineKarolinska InstituteHuddingeSweden
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental MedicineKarolinska InstituteStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations