Psychopharmacology

, Volume 87, Issue 4, pp 390–395 | Cite as

The effects of nicotinic acid and xanthinol nicotinate on human memory in different categories of age

A double blind study
  • S. M. Loriaux
  • J. B. Deijen
  • J. F. Orlebeke
  • J. H. De Swart
Original Investigations

Abstract

The treatment effect of nicotinic acid and xanthinol nicotinate on human memory was compared with placebo in 96 healthy subjects. Forty-three subjects were young (35–45 years), 30 subjects middle aged (55–65 years) and 23 subjects were old aged (75–85 years). Pre- and post-treatment scores were measured on a battery of memory tasks, covering sensory register, short-term memory and long-term memory. The treatment regime was 1 dragee t.i.d. for 8 weeks. The administration of xanthinol nicotinate (500 mg, containing 141.7 mg nicotinic acid), nicotinic acid (141.7 mg) and placebo (lactose) was double-blind. Pre-and post-treatment scores were analysed by means of a multivariate covariance technique, the pre-treatment score serving as covariate. Nicotinic acid treatment resulted in improvement of sensory register and short-term memory, while xanthinol nicotinate improved sensory register, short-term memory and long-term memory. In comparison with placebo, both active compounds yielded improvements of 10–40%, depending on type of task. Treatment effects of nicotinic acid were predominantly found in the young and middle-aged, whereas treatment effects of xanthinol nicotinate were predominantly found in the old. These results are interpreted by the supposed activity of nicotinic acid at the cell membrane, improving neuronal transmission, and of xanthinol nicotinate inside the cell, enhancing cell metabolism and oxygen supply in the brain.

Key words

Nicotinic acid Xanthinol nicotinate Young aged Middle aged Old aged Sensory register Short-term memory Long-term memory 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bartoli G et al. (1977) Langzeitbehandlung mit Xantinol-Nicotinat (Complamin Retard) bei geriatrischen Patienten mit zerebraler Insuffizienz. Therapiewoche 27:575–585Google Scholar
  2. Bower G (ed) (1977) Human memory. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Bravermann AM, Naylor R (1975) Vasoactive substances in the management of elderly patients suffering from dementia. Mod Geriatr 5:20–29Google Scholar
  4. Brenner G (1970) Die Einwirkung von Xantinol-Nicotinat auf den durch Adrenalin und Noradrenalin induzierte Hyperlactacidāmie. Arzneim Forsch 20:1860–1862Google Scholar
  5. Brenner G (1972) Die Einwirkung von Xantinol-Nicotinat auf den Stoffwechsel des Gehirns. Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen über die Beeinflussung der Glucose-C-Permeation und der Pyridin-und Adeninnucleotide. Arzneim Forsch 22:754–759Google Scholar
  6. Brenner G (1973) Beeinflußbarkeit des ATP-Gehaltes menschlicher und tierischer Erythrozyten in vivo und in vitro durch Xantinol-Nicotinat. Arzneim Forsch 23:562Google Scholar
  7. Brenner G (1974) Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Beeinflußbarkeit der 0-Aufnahme von Leber- und Hirnhomogenate der Ratte durch Xantinol-Nicotinat und Nikotinsäure. Arzneim Forsch 24:321–325Google Scholar
  8. Brückner GW, Jansen W (1979) Zur Therapie der zerebrovaskulären Instuffizienz. Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 25:861Google Scholar
  9. Carlson LA, Walldius G (1972) Serum and tissue lipid metabolism and effect of nicotinic acid in different types of hyperlipidemia. Adv Exp Med Biol 26:165–178Google Scholar
  10. Carlson NR (1980) Physiology of behavior. Allyn & Bacon Inc., Boston London Sydney TorontoGoogle Scholar
  11. Finn JD (1978) Multivariance: univariate and multivariate analysis of variance, covariance, regression and repeated measures. User's guide. Version VI, release 2. Ann Arbor, National Educational Resources Inc., MichiganGoogle Scholar
  12. Finn JD, Mattsson I (1978) Multivariate analysis in educational research. Applications of the multivariate program. National Educational Resources, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  13. Frolkis VV (1984) Physiology of cell aging. In: Von Hahn HP (ed) Interdisciplinary topics in gerontology, vol 18. Karger, Basel München Paris London New York Tokyo Sydney, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  14. Goodman LS, Gilman A (1975) The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Macmillan, New York, 736–737Google Scholar
  15. Held K (1973) Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Wirkung und Wirkungsmechanismus von Xantinol-Nicotinat beim Menschen in Sauerstoffmangel. Therapiewoche 37:3270Google Scholar
  16. Hoyer S (1982) The young, adult and normally aged brain. Its blood flow and oxidative metabolism. A review. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1:101–116Google Scholar
  17. Jacobs E et al. (1969) Hyperoxygenation effect on cognitive functioning in the aged. New Eng J Med 281:753–757Google Scholar
  18. Jansen W, Brückner GW (1980) Therapiemöglichkeit chronischzerebrovaskulärer Insuffizienz. Therapiewoche 30:5824Google Scholar
  19. De Kousemaeker EAM et al. (1974) De behandeling von slecht genezende wonden met behulp van iontoforese met xanthinol nicotinaat. Ned Tijdschr Fysiother 849:174–178Google Scholar
  20. Van der Kuy A (1975) Thermographical follow-up during treatment of chronic ulcerations with iontophoresis with xanthinolnicotinate. Bibl Radiologica 6:203Google Scholar
  21. Lawrence RM et al. (1965) Comparison of the effects of heparin sodium, xanthinol niacinate (Complamin) and 2-dimethyl-amino-ethanol (Deaner) in institutionalized geriatric groups. J Am Geriatr Soc 13, 4:325Google Scholar
  22. Loriaux SM et al. (1982) Het effect van Complamin Retard op cerebrale insufficientie. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (internal publ)Google Scholar
  23. Nikkela EA (1972) Effect of drugs on plasma triglyceride metabolism. Adv Exp Med Biol 26:113–133Google Scholar
  24. Shiffrin RM, Atkinson RC (1969) Storage and retrieval processing in long-term memory. Psychol Rev 76:180Google Scholar
  25. Sternberg S (1975) Memory scanning: New findings and current controversies. Q J Exp Psychol 27:1–32Google Scholar
  26. Vartianen E, Arstila A (1967) Effect of Complamin on the partial pressure of oxygen in blood. Ann Chir Gynecol 56:415–418Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Loriaux
    • 1
  • J. B. Deijen
    • 1
  • J. F. Orlebeke
    • 1
  • J. H. De Swart
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Experimental PsychologyFree UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations