Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Nicotine-produced relearning deficit in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice

Abstract

Acute nicotine administration has been shown to influence the acquisition and retention of learning tasks. In order to investigate the many possible behavioral and pharmacological effects of nicotine, a modified 2×2 statedependent learning design was used to assess nicotine's effects on active avoidance learning. Male and female mice of the C57BL/6J (C57) and DBA/2J (DBA) inbred strains were injected with a control solution or with 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg nicotine 5 min before the start of training and, following a 24-h period, 5 min before retraining. Nicotine had no effect on the acquisition of the learning task but, depending on strain and sex, did have an effect on relearning. Relearning in the C57 males was unaffected by nicotine injection, whereas the most prominent effect of nicotine in the C57 females and the DBA males and females was a retrieval deficit. The prevalence of a nicotine-induced retrieval deficit in the present experiment suggests that those mechanisms underlying the retrieval of previously learned information are, in part, mediated or modulated by perturbations within nicotine-sensitive areas of the central nervous system.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bättig K (1970) The effect of pre- and post-trial application of nicotine on the 12 problems of the Hebb-Williams Test in the rat. Psychopharmacologia 18:68–76

  2. Balfour DJK, Morrison CT (1975) A possible role for the pituitary-adrenal system in the effects of nicotine on avoidance behavior. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 3:349–354

  3. Bovet D, Bovet-Nitti F, Oliverio A (1966) Effects of nicotine on avoidance conditioning of inbred strains of mice. Psychopharmacologia 10:1–5

  4. Bovet D, Bovet-Nitti F, Oliverio A (1967) Action of nicotine on spontaneous and acquired behavior in rats and mice. Ann NY Acad Sci 142:261–267

  5. Bovet D, Bovet-Nitti F, Oliverio A (1969) Genetic aspects of learning and memory in mice. Science 163:139–149

  6. Bovet-Nitti F (1966) Facilitation of simultaneous visual discrimination by nicotine in the rat. Psychopharmacologia 10:59–66

  7. Bovet-Nitti F (1969) Facilitation of simultaneous visual discrimination by nicotine in four “inbred” strains of mice. Psychopharmacologia 14:193–199

  8. Castellano C (1976) Effects of nicotine on discrimination learning, consolidation, and learned behavior in two inbred strains of mice. Psychopharmacology 48:37–43

  9. Clapshaw PA (1976) Rate of transfer of RNA mouse nuclei associated with short-term avoidance training. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Colorado Microfilms

  10. Domino EF, Lutz MP (1973) Tolerance to the effects of daily nicotine on rat bar pressing behavior for water reinforcement. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1:445–448

  11. Erickson CK (1971) Studies on the mechanism of avoidance facilitation by nicotine. Psychopharmacologia 22:357–368

  12. Essman WB, Essman SG (1971) Cholinergic mechanisms and avoidance behavior acquisition: Effects of nicotine in mice. Psychol Rep 29:987–993

  13. Evangelista AM, Gattoni RC, Izquierdo I (1970) Effect of amphetamine, nicotine, and hexamethonium on performance of a conditioned response during acquisition and retention trials. Pharmacology 3:91–96

  14. Geller I, Heartmann R, Blum K (1971). Effects of nicotine monomethiodide, lobeline, chlordiazepoxide, meprobamate, and caffeine on a discrimination task in laboratory rats. Psychopharmacologia 20:355–365

  15. Hatchell PC, Collins AC (1977) Influences of genotype and sex on behavioral tolerance to nicotine in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 6:25–30

  16. Hubbard JE, Gohd RS (1975) Tolerance development to the arousal effects of nicotine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 3:471–476

  17. Izquierdo I, Nasello AG, Vasquez BJ, Evangelista AM (1969) Central effects of amphetamine and nicotine: A behavioural, biochemical and electrophysiological study. Fourth International Congress on Pharmacology, Abstracts, Basel, p 293

  18. Keenan A, Johnson FN (1972) Development of behavioural tolerance to nicotine in the rat. Experientia 28:428–429

  19. Marks M, Collins AC (1982) Characterization of nicotine binding in mouse brain and comparison with the binding of α-bungarotoxin and quinuclidinyl benzilate. Mol Pharmacol 22:554–564

  20. Morrison CF (1974) Effects of nicotine and its withdrawal on the performance of rats on signalled and unsignalled avoidance schedules. Psychopharmacologia 38:25–35

  21. Morrison CF, Stephenson JA (1972) The occurrence of tolerance to a central depressant effect of nicotine. Br J Pharmacol 45:151–156

  22. Oliverio A (1967) Contrasting effects of scopolamine on mice trained simultaneously with two different schedules of avoidance conditioning. Psychopharmacologia 11:39–51

  23. Orsingher OA, Fulginiti S (1971) Effects of alpha-methyl tyrosine and adrenergic blocking agents on the facilitating action of amphetamine and nicotine on learning in rats. Psychopharmacologia 19:231–240

  24. Orsingher OA, Fulginiti S (1973) Influence of peripheral mechanisms on the facilitatory learning action of amphetamine and nicotine in rats. Pharmacology 9:138–144

  25. Overton DA (1971) Discriminative control of behavior by drug states. In: Thompson T, Pickens R (eds) Stimulus properties of drugs. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp 87–111

  26. Overton DA (1973) State-dependent learning produced by addicting drugs. In: Fisher S, Freedman A (eds) Opiate addictions: Origins and treatment. V.H. Winston and Sons, Washington, DC, pp 61–75

  27. Overton DA (1974) Experimental methods for the study of state-dependent learning. Fed Proc 33:1800–1813

  28. Pazzaglia A, Pepeu G (1964) Amnesic properties of scopolamine and brain acetylcholine in the rat. Int J Neuropharmacology 4:291–299

  29. Rosecrans JA (1972) Brain area nicotine levels in male and female rats with different levels of spontaneous activity. Neuropharmacology 11:863–870

  30. Rosecrans JA, Chance WT (1977) Cholinergic and non-cholinergic aspects of the discriminative stimulus properties of nicotine. In Lal H (ed) Advances in behavioral biology, vol 22, Discriminative stimulus properties of drugs. Plenum, New York

  31. Rosecrans JA, Dren AT, Domino EF (1968) Effects of physostigmine on rat brain acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase and conditioned pole jumping. Neuropharmacology 7:127–134

  32. Rosecrans JA, Schechter MD (1972) Brain area nicotine levels in male and female rats of two strains. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 196:46–54

  33. Schechter MD, Rosecrans JA (1971a) Behavioral evidence for two types of cholinergic receptors in the CNS. Eur J Pharmacol 15:375–378

  34. Schechter MD, Rosecrans JA (1971b) CNS effect of nicotine as the discriminative stimulus for the rat in a T-maze. Life Sci 10:821–832

  35. Schechter MD, Rosecrans JA (1972a) Nicotine as a discriminative cue in rats: Inability of related drugs to produce a nicotine-like cueing effect. Psychopharmacologia 27:379–387

  36. Schechter MD, Rosecrans JA (1972b) Nicotine as a discriminative stimulus in rats depleted of norepinephrine or 5-hydroxytryptamine. Psychopharmacologia 24:417–429

  37. Stolerman IP, Fink R, Jarvik ME (1973) Acute and chronic tolerance to nicotine measured by activity in rats. Psychopharmacologia 30:329–342

  38. Stripling JS, Alpern HP (1974) Nicotine and caffeine: Disruption of the long-term store of memory and proactive facilitation of learning in mice. Psychopharmacologia 38:187–200

  39. Tepper JM, Wilson JR, Schlesinger K (1979) Relations between nicotine-induced convulsive behavior and blood and brain levels of nicotine as a function of sex and age in two inbred strains of mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 10:349–353

  40. Winer BJ (1971) Statistical principles in experimental design, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to David M. Gilliam.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gilliam, D.M., Schlesinger, K. Nicotine-produced relearning deficit in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Psychopharmacology 86, 291–295 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00432216

Download citation

Key words

  • Nicotine
  • State-dependent learning
  • Memory
  • Inbred mice
  • Retrieval deficit