Effects on the acquisition of conditioned avoidance responses and seizure threshold in the offspring of amphetamine treated gravid rats
- 17 Downloads
Female rats with 30 to 70% of conditioned responses in an avoidance conditioning session in a Warner cage, were treated daily during pregnancy with 0.5 mg/kg of d,l-amphetamine administered subcutaneously. They had been mated with males selected with the same criterion who received no treatment.
The control group differed from the treated one in that females received the same volume of saline solution instead of the drug.
Teratogenic effects of the drug were not observed and there were no differences in either the age of eyes or vaginal aperture or in growth rate determined by the weekly weight between offspring of treated and control mothers.
The pups of amphetamine treated mothers had better acquisition and retention of conditioned avoidance responses than those of control mothers when they were 90 days old but no difference was observed at the age of 45 days.
On the other hand, offspring of the treated group had a lower hippocampal seizure threshold than the control group.
The relation between the mechanisms of learning and seizure are discussed in connection with potassium release by stimulation in the hippocampus.
Key wordsAmphetamine Pregnancy Learning Seizure Hippocampus
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Aboul-Enein, H. Y.: Amphetamine: a pharmacological profile. Amer. J. Pharm. 143, 161–164 (1971)Google Scholar
- Al-Hachin, G. M., Fink, G. B.: Effect of DDT or Parathion on condition avoidance response of offspring from DDT or Parathion-treated mothers. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 12, 424–427 (1968)Google Scholar
- Al-Hachin, G. M.: Effect of Aldrin on the condition avoidance response and electroshock seizure threshold of offspring from aldrin-treated mothers. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 21, 370–373 (1971)Google Scholar
- Al-Hachin, G. M., Al-Baker, A.: Effects of chlordane on conditioned avoidance response, brain seizure threshold and open-field performance of prenatally treated mice. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 49, 311–315 (1973)Google Scholar
- Butcher, R. E., Vorhees, Ch., Kimmel, C. A.: Learning impairment from maternal salicylate treatment in rats. Nature (Lond.) (New Biol.) 236, 211–212 (1972)Google Scholar
- Evangelista, A. M., Izquierdo, I.: The effect of pre- and post-trial amphetamine injections on avoidance responses of rats. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 20, 42–47 (1971)Google Scholar
- Denti, A., Epstein, A.: Sex differences in the acquisition of two kinds of avoidance behavior in rats. Physiol. Behav. 8, 611–615 (1972)Google Scholar
- Doty, B., Doty, L.: Facilitation effects of amphetamine on avoidance conditioning in relation to age and problem difficulty. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 9, 234–241 (1966)Google Scholar
- Fulginiti, A. S., Orsingher, O. A.: Effect of learning, amphetamine and nicotine on the level and synthesis of brain noradrenaline in rats. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 190, 291–298 (1971)Google Scholar
- Frank, M., Bovet, D., Gatti, G.: An automatic device for the study of conditioned escape reactions in the rat. II. Characteristics for the programmer and of the modified Warner cage for studying the barrier crossing responses. Sci. rept. Inst. Super. Sanitá (Rome) 1, 139–152 (1961)Google Scholar
- Izquierdo, I.: Hippocampal physiology: experiments on regulation of its electrical activity, on the mechanisms of seizure and on a hypothesis of learning. Behav. Biol. 7, 669–698 (1972)Google Scholar
- Izquierdo, I., Nasello, A. G.: Pharmacological evidence that hippocampal facilitation, post-tetanic potentiation and seizures may be due to a common mechanism. Exp. Neurol. 27, 399–409 (1970)Google Scholar
- Izquierdo, I., Nasello, A. G., Marichich, E. S.: Effects of potassium on rat hippocampus: the dependence of hippocampal evoked and seizure activity on extracellular potassium levels. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 187, 318–328 (1970)Google Scholar
- Izquierdo, I., Nasello, A. G., Marichich, E. S.: The dependence of hippocampal function on extracellular potassium levels. Curr. mod. Biol. 4, 35–46 (1971)Google Scholar
- Izquierdo, I., Orsingher, O. A.: A physiological difference in the hippocampus of rats with a low inborn learning ability. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 23, 386–396 (1972)Google Scholar
- Izquierdo, I., Orsingher, O. A., Levín, L. E.: Hippocampal potassium release upon stimulation and performance in a shuttle-box. Behav. Biol. 7, 867–871 (1972),Google Scholar
- Karki, N., Kuntzman, R., Brodie, B. B.: Storage, synthesis and metabolism of monoamines in the developing brain. J. Neurochem. 9, 53–58 (1962)Google Scholar
- Kelemen, K., Bovet, D.: Effects of drugs upon defensive behavior of rats. Acta physiol. Acad. Sci. hung. 19, 143–154 (1961)Google Scholar
- Kulkarni, A. S., Shideman, F. E.: Sensitivities of the brains of infant and adult rats to catecholamine-depleting actions of reserpine and tetrabenazine. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 153, 428–433 (1966)Google Scholar
- Nelson, M. M., Forfar, J. O.: Association between drugs administered during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities of the fetus. Brit. med. J. 1, 523–527 (1971)Google Scholar
- Orsingher, O. A., Fulginiti, S.: Effects of α-methyl tyrosine and adrenergic blocking agents on the facilitating action of amphetamine and nicotine on learning in rats. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 19, 231–240 (1971)Google Scholar
- Orsingher, O. A., Fulginiti, S.: Influence of peripheral mechanisms on the facilitatory learning action of amphetamine and nicotine in rats. Pharmacology 9, 138–144 (1973)Google Scholar
- Reed, D. J., Withrow, C. D., Woodbury, D. M.: Electrolyte and acid-base parameters of rat cerebrospinal fluid. Exp. Brain Res. 3, 212–219 (1966)Google Scholar
- Rudzik, A. D., Johnson, G. A.: Effect of amphetamine and amphetamine analogs on convulsive threshold. In: Amphetamine and related compounds. Proceedings of the Mario Negri Institute for pharmacological research, Milan, Italia. E. Costa and S. Garatini, eds. New York: Raven Press 1970Google Scholar
- Werkoff, J., Gottlieb, J. S., Havlena, J., Word, T. J.: Behavioral effects of prenatal drugs administration in the white rat. Pediatrics 27, 318–334 (1961)Google Scholar
- Werkoff, J., Havlena, J.: Postnatal behavioral effects of tranquilizers administered to the gravid rat. Exp. Neurol. 6, 263–269 (1962)Google Scholar