Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Effects of methamphetamine and chlordiazepoxide on schedule-controlled and adjunctive licking in the rat


The effects of methamphetamine (0.03–1.7 mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (3.0–30.0 mg/kg) were studied in a situation in which the same motor response, licking a water-filled tube, served as a schedule-controlled and as an adjunctive behavior. Rats responded under a 3-min fixed-interval (FI) schedule of food presentation in which the required response was a lick on the tube (schedule-controlled); licking also occurred following every food presentation (adjunctive). Adjunctive licking occurred at a high, steady rate, but schedule-controlled licking was emitted at a changing rate over time, characteristic of FI schedules. Both drugs had little effect on overall adjunctive licking, except for decreases at the highest doses, but there were changes in the pattern of adjunctive licking. Methamphetamine produced only decreases in schedule-controlled licking, but chlordiazepoxide produced dose-dependent increases. In general, the magnitude of drug effect on local rates of responding within the FI was related to control rates of responding within the same periods, but there were instances in which the magnitude of effect depended also on whether licking was adjunctive or schedule-controlled.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Azrin, N. H., Hutchinson, R. R., Hake, D. F.: Extinction-induced aggression. J. exp. Anal. Behav. 9, 191–204 (1966).

  2. Cook, L., Kelleher, R. T.: Drug effects on the behavior of animals. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 96, 315–335 (1962).

  3. Dews, P. B.: Studies on behavior. IV. Stimulant actions of methamphetamine. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 122, 137–147 (1958).

  4. Dixon, W. J., Massey, F. J., Jr.: Introduction to Statistical Analysis, p. 273. New York: McGraw-Hill 1957.

  5. Falk, J.: Production of polydipsia in normal rats by an intermittent food schedule. Science 133, 195–196 (1961).

  6. Falk, J. L.: Studies on schedule-induced polydipsia. In: Thirst: First International Symposium on Thirst in the Regulation of Body Water. M. J. Wayner, ed., pp. 95–116. New York: Pergamon Press 1964.

  7. Falk, J. L.: The nature and determinants of adjunctive behavior. Physiol. Behav. 6, 577–588 (1971).

  8. Ferster, C. B., Skinner, B. F.: Schedules of Reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts 1957.

  9. Geller, I., Seifter, J.: The effects of meprobamate, barbiturates, d-amphetamine and promazine on experimentally induced conflict in the rat. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 1, 482–492 (1960).

  10. Kelleher, R. T., Morse, W. H.: Determinants of the specificity of the behavioral effects of drugs. Ergebn. Physiol. 60, 1–56 (1968).

  11. Levitsky, D., Collier, G.: Schedule-induced wheel running. Physiol. Behav. 3, 571–573 (1968).

  12. McKearney, J. W.: Rate-dependent effects of drugs: modification by discriminative stimuli of the effects of amobarbital on schedule-controlled behavior. J. exp. Anal. Behav. 14, 167–175 (1970).

  13. McKearney, J. W.: Schedule-dependent effects: Effects of drugs, and maintenance of responding with response-produced electric shocks. In: Schedule Effects: Drugs, Drinking, and Aggression. R. M. Gilbert and J. D. Keehn, eds., pp. 3–25. Toronto: University of Toronto Press 1972.

  14. McMillan, D. E.: The effects of sympathomimetic amines on schedule-controlled behavior in the pigeon. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 160, 315–325 (1968).

  15. Riddle, W. C., Rednick, A. B., Catania, A. C., Tucker, S. J.: Complete squirrel monkey diet in tablet form. J. exp. Anal. Behav. 9, 670 (1966).

  16. Segal, E. F., Deadwyler, S. A.: Water drinking patterns under several dry food reinforcement schedules. Psychonom. Sci. 1, 271–272 (1964a).

  17. Segal, E. F., Deadwyler, S. A.: Amphetamine differentially affects temporally spaced bar pressing and collateral water drinking. Psychonom. Sci. 1, 349–350 (1964b).

  18. Segal, E. F., Oden, D. L.: Concurrent facilitation of food-reinforced, spaced licking and depression of schedule-induced, polydipsic licking by amphetamine. Psychonom. Sci. 10, 155–156 (1968).

  19. Segal, E. F., Oden, D. L., Deadwyler, S. A.: Determinants of polydipsia: V. Effect of amphetamine and pentobarbital. Psychonom. Sci. 3, 33–34 (1965).

  20. Skinner, B. F.: The Behavior of Organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts 1938.

  21. Skinner, B. F., Morse, W. H.: Concurrent activity under fixed-interval reinforcement. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 50, 279–281 (1957).

  22. Teitelbaum, P., Derks, P.: The effect of amphetamine on forced drinking in the rat. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 51, 801–810 (1958).

  23. Verhave, T.: The effect of methamphetamine on operant level and avoidance behavior. J. exp. Anal. Behav. 1, 207–219 (1958).

  24. Villarreal, J.: Schedule-induced pica. Presented at the Eastern Psychological Association Meeting, 1967.

  25. Wuttke, W.: The effects of d-amphetamine on schedule-controlled water licking in the squirrel monkey. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 17, 70–82 (1970).

  26. Wuttke, W., Innis, N. K.: Drug effects upon behaviour induced by second-order schedules—The relevance of ethological analyses. In: Schedule Effects: Drugs, Drinking, and Aggression. R. M. Gilbert and J. D. Keehn, eds., pp. 129–147. Toronto: University of Toronto Press 1972.

  27. Wuttke, W., Kelleher, R. T.: Effects of some benzodiazepines on punished and unpunished behavior in the pigeon. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 172, 397–405 (1970).

Download references

Author information

Additional information

This work was supported by grants MH-18421 and MH-10625 from NIMH, U.S. Public Health Service. I thank J. Barrett, R. T. Kelleher, and W. H. Morse for helpful comments; Elizabeth Anderson and Anne Guertin for help in preparation of the manuscript; and Dorothy Sivazlian for technical assistance.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

McKearney, J.W. Effects of methamphetamine and chlordiazepoxide on schedule-controlled and adjunctive licking in the rat. Psychopharmacologia 30, 375–384 (1973).

Download citation

Key words

  • Schedule-Controlled Behavior
  • Adjunctive Behavior
  • Licking
  • Drinking
  • Methamphetamine
  • Chlordiazepoxide
  • Rat