Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Energy cost of treadmill and floor walking at self-selected paces

  • 439 Accesses

  • 107 Citations

Summary

Oxygen uptake-velocity regression equations were developed for floor and level treadmill walking by having two groups of men, aged 19–29 years (n=20) and 55–66 years (n=22), walk at four self-selected paces, from “rather slowly” to “as fast as possible”. A two-variable quadratric model relating VO2 (ml·kg−1·min−1) to velocity (m·s−1) was adopted for prediction purposes. However, age and fatness significantly (p<0.05) interacted with treadmill walking speed, while age alone significantly interacted with floor speed. In addition, a significant difference was found between the energy cost of floor and treadmill walking. For example at the normal walking speed of 1.33 m·s−1, the energy cost for the treadmill (age 55–66 years) was 10.58 ml·kg−1·min−1 and for the floor, 11.04 ml·kg−1·min−1 (p<0.05). Four quadratic equations are therefore presented, one each for floor and treadmill in each of the two age-groups. The percent variance explained was between 87 and 95% for each of these equations.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bassey EJ, Fentem PH, MacDonald IC, Scriven PM (1976) Self-paced walking as a method for exercise testing in elderly and young men. Clin Sci Mol Med 51: 609–612

  2. Blessey RL, Hislop HJ, Waters RL, Antonelli D (1976) Metabolic energy cost of unrestrained walking. Phys Ther 56: 1019–1024

  3. Booyens J, Keatinge WR (1957) The expenditure of energy by men and women walking. J Physiol 138: 165–171

  4. Bransford DR, Howley ET (1977) Oxygen cost of running in trained and untrained men and women. Med Sci Sports 9: 41–44

  5. Corlett EN, Mahadeva K (1970) A relationship between a freely chosen working pace and energy consumption curves. Ergonomics 14: 703–711

  6. Cunningham DA, Rechnitzer PA, Pearce ME, Donner AP (1982) Determinants of self-selected walking pace across ages 19 to 66. J Gerontol 37: 560–564

  7. Daniels F Jr, Vanderbie JH, Winsman FR (1953) Energy cost of treadmill walking compared to road walking. Report # 220 of Environmental Protection Division, Q. M., Research and Development Laboratory, Natick, MA

  8. Davies CTM (1980) Effects of wind assistance and resistance on the forward motion of a runner. J Appl Physiol 48: 702–709

  9. Durnin JVGA, Mikulicic V (1956) The influence of graded exercises on the oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation and heart rate of young and elderly men. Q J Exp Physiol 41: 442–452

  10. Ekblom B, Day WC, Hartley LH, Moore F, Wear R (1979) Reproducibility of exercise prescribed by pace description. Scand J Sports Sci 1: 16–19

  11. Givoni B, Goldman RF (1971) Predicting metabolic energy cost. J Appl Physiol 30: 429–433

  12. Grimby G, Soderholm B (1962) Energy expenditure of men in different age groups during level walking and bicycle ergometry. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 14: 321–328

  13. Hidiroglou MA, Fuller WA, Hickman RD (1980) Supercarp, 6th edn. Statistical Quarterly, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

  14. Jankowski LW, Ferguson RJ, Langelier M, Chaniolis LN, Choquette G (1972) Accuracy of methods of estimating oxygen cost of walking in coronary patients. J Appl Physiol 33: 672–673

  15. McDonald I (1961) Statistical studies of recorded energy expenditure in man. Nutr Abstr Rev 31: 739–762

  16. Murray MP, Kory RC, Clarkson BH (1969) Walking patterns in healthy old men. J Gerontol 24: 169–178

  17. Pugh LGCE (1970) Oxygen intake in track and treadmill running with observations on the effect of air resistance. J Physiol 207: 823–835

  18. Pugh LGCE (1971) The influence of wind resistance in running and walking and the mechanical efficiency of work against horizontal and vertical forces. J Physiol 213: 255–276

  19. Ralston HJ (1960) Comparison of energy expenditure during treadmill walking and floor walking. J Appl Physiol 15: 1156

  20. Salvendy G, Pilitsis J (1971) Psychophysiological aspects of paced and unpaced performance as influenced by age. Ergonomics 14: 703–711

  21. Scholander PF (1947) Analyzer for accurate estimation of respiratory gases in half cubic centimeter samples. J Biol Chem 167: 235–250

  22. Scott AJ, Holt D (1982) The effect of two-stage sampling on ordinary test squares methods. J Am Stat Assoc 77: 848–854

  23. van der Walt WH, Wyndham CH (1973) An equation for prediction of energy expenditure of walking and running. J Appl Physiol 34: 559–563

  24. van Ingen Schenau GJ (1980) Some fundamental aspects of the biomechanics of overground versus treadmill locomotion. Med Sci Sports 12: 257–261

  25. Williams EJ (1967) Regression analysis. John Wiley, New York

  26. Wilmore JH, Girandola RN, Moody DL (1970) Validity of skinfold and girth assessment for predicting alterations in body composition. J Appl Physiol 29: 313–317

  27. Workman JM, Armstrong BW (1963) Oxygen cost of treadmill walking. J Appl Physiol 18: 798–803

  28. Wyndham CH, van der Walt WH, van Rensburg AJ, Rogers GG, Strydom NB (1971) The influence of body weight on energy expenditure during walking on a road and on a treadmill. Int Z Angew Physiol 29: 285–292

  29. Zarrugh MY, Todd FN, Ralston HJ (1974) Optimization of energy expenditure during level walking. Eur J Appl Physiol 33: 293–296

Download references

Author information

Additional information

Supported by a grant from the Ontario Ministry of Health (DM449)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pearce, M.E., Cunningham, D.A., Donner, A.P. et al. Energy cost of treadmill and floor walking at self-selected paces. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 52, 115–119 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00429037

Download citation

Key words

  • Self-paced walking
  • Oxygen uptake
  • Prediction of oxygen uptake
  • Age and energy expenditure
  • Body composition and oxygen uptake