, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 207–211 | Cite as

Tardive dyskinesia: Age and sex differences in hospitalized schizophrenics

  • James M. Smith
  • William T. Oswald
  • L. Thomas Kucharski
  • Laura J. Waterman


An examination of the severity of tardive dyskinesia in psychiatric inpatients using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) indicates differing trends with age for each sex. Females show a significant linear increase with age, while males display a significant curvilinear relationship. Reliable differences between males and females are found only for the 70–79 and ≥80 year age groups. The differences between the sexes cannot be accounted for by differences in length of current hospitalization or by current level of neuroleptic medication. Possible reasons for the results are discussed.

Key words

Tardive dyskinesia Movement disorders Neuroleptics Extrapyramidal system Side effects 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • James M. Smith
    • 1
  • William T. Oswald
    • 1
  • L. Thomas Kucharski
    • 1
  • Laura J. Waterman
    • 1
  1. 1.Office of Clinical ResearchHarlem Valley Psychiatric CenterWingdaleUSA

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