Acute psychologic and neuroendocrine effects of dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate
- 110 Downloads
These studies examine the interface between central neurochemical events, psychologic state, and neuroendocrine activity. Fifty-nine healthy young men received dextroamphetamine (10 or 20 mg), methylphenidate (10 or 20 mg), or placebo. Psychologic state and serum concentrations of growth hormone, cortisol, and amphetamine were monitored for 2 h following drug ingestion.
There was considerable variance in both the endocrine and psychologic responses to these drugs. In general, both dextroamphetamine (20 mg) and methylphenidate (20 mg) stimulated growth hormone release, while only dextroamphetamine stimulated cortisol release. The variance in psychologic response precluded statistically significant differences among the drug groups; however, dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate appeared about equally effective in eliciting euphoria. Growth hormone response following these drugs correlated selectively with increases in euphoria, while cortisol response correlated somewhat selectively with increases in arousal. Serum amphetamine concentration correlated only with degree of growth hormone response and degree of elation.
These findings suggest that a common or linked central mechanism underlies both the growth hormone response and euphoria elicited by these drugs, and that a different mechanism underlies the cortisol and arousal responses. More importantly, these findings suggest another way in which psychopharmacologic agents can be used to elucidate the neurophysiology of both pathologic and normative psychologic states.
Key wordsDextroamphetamine Methylphenidate Growth hormone Cortisol Euphoria Arousal
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Aarskog, D., Fevang, F.Ø., Kløvc, H.: The effect of the stimulant drugs, dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate, on secretion of growth hormone in hyperactive children. J. Pediatr. 90, 136–139 (1977)Google Scholar
- Besser, G. M., Butler, P. W. P., Landon, J., Rees, L.: Influence of amphetamines on plasma corticosteroid and growth hormone levels in man. Br. J. Med. 4, 523–530 (1969)Google Scholar
- Boden, G., Soeldner, J. S.: A sensitive double antibody radioimmunoassay for human growth hormone (HGH): levels of serum HGH following rapid tolbutamide infusion. Diabetolgia 8, 413–421 (1967)Google Scholar
- Brown, W. A.: Psychologic and neuroendocrine response to methylphenidate. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 34, 1103–1108 (1977)Google Scholar
- Costall, B., Naylor, R. J.: The involvement of dopaminergic systems with the stereotyped behavior patterns induced by methylphenidate. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 26, 20–33 (1974)Google Scholar
- Ebert, M. H., Van Kammen, D. P., Murphy, D. L.: Plasma levels of amphetamine and behavioral response, in pharmacokinetics, psychoactive drug blood levels and clinical response, L. Gottschalk and L. Marlis, eds. New York: Spectrum 1975Google Scholar
- Ferris, R., Tang, F., Maxwell, R.: A comparison of the capacities of isomers of amphetamine, deoxypipradrol and methylphenidate to inhibit the uptake of tritiated catecholamines into rat cerebral cortex slices, synaptosomal preparations of rat cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and striatum and into adrenergic nerves of rabbit aorta. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 181, 407–416 (1972)Google Scholar
- Frohman, L. A., Stachura, M. L.: Neuropharmacologic control of neuroendocrine function in man. Metabolism 24, 211–234 (1975)Google Scholar
- Garver, D. L., Pandey, G. N., Dekirmenjian, H.: Growth hormone and catecholamines in affective disease. Am. J. Psychiatry 132, 1149–1154 (1975)Google Scholar
- Goodwin, F. K.: Psychiatric side-effects of levo-dopa in man. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 218, 1915–1920 (1971)Google Scholar
- Janowsky, D. S., Davis, J. M.: Methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and levamphetamine effects on schizophrenic symptoms. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 33, 304–308 (1976)Google Scholar
- Langer, G., Heinze, G., Reim, B., Matussek, N.: Growth hormone response to d-amphetamine in normal controls and in depressive patients. Neurosci. Lett. 1, 185–189 (1975)Google Scholar
- Martin, W. R., Sloan, J. W., Sapira, J. D., Jasinski, D. R.: Physiologic, subjective, and behavioral effects of amphetamine, methamphetamine, ephedrine, phenmetrazine and methylphenidate in man. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 12, 245–258 (1971)Google Scholar
- Murphy, B. E. P.: Some studies of the protein-binding of steroids and their application to the routine micro and ultramicro measurement of various steroids in body fluids by competitive proteinbinding radioassay. J. Clin. Endocrinol. 27, 973–990 (1967)Google Scholar
- Murphy, D., Goodwin, F. K., Brodie, K. H., Bunney, W. E.: l-Dopa dopamine and hypomania. Am. J. Psychiatry 130, 79–82 (1973)Google Scholar
- Nowlis, V. Research with the mood adjective check list, in affect, cognition, and personality, S. S. Tomkins, and C. E. Izard, eds. New York: Springer 1965Google Scholar
- Sachar, E. J., Frantz A. G., Altman, N., Sassin, J.: Growth hormone and prolactin in unipolar and bipolar depressed patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 130, 1361–1367 (1973)Google Scholar
- Scheel-Krüger, J.: Comparative studies of various amphetamine analogues demonstrating different interactions with the metabolism of the catecholamines in the brain. Eur. J. Pharmacol 14, 47–59 (1971)Google Scholar
- Smith, R., Davis, J., Schlemmer, F.: The relative potencies of damphetamine, l-amphetamine and methylphenidate on mood in man and stereotyped and locomotor activity in animals. Neurosci. Abs. 429 (1974)Google Scholar
- Smith, R. C., Davis, J. M.: Comparative effects of d-amphetamine, l-amphetamine and methylphenidate on mood in man. Psychopharmacology 53, 1–12 (1977)Google Scholar