, Volume 59, Issue 3, pp 285–292

Involvement of norepinephrine in startle arousal after acute and chronic d-amphetamine administration

  • Larry Kokkinidis
  • Hymie Anisman
Original Investigations

DOI: 10.1007/BF00426636

Cite this article as:
Kokkinidis, L. & Anisman, H. Psychopharmacology (1978) 59: 285. doi:10.1007/BF00426636


Treatment with d-amphetamine produced a dose-dependent increase in startle amplitude in response to a buzzer. This increase appeared to be a reflection of a sensitization effect, i.e., enhanced responsivity as a function of repeated stimulus presentations. Treatment with α-methyl-p-tyrosine, which reduced whole brain concentrations of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE), or treatment with FLA-63, which reduced only NE, antagonized the effects of d-amphetamine on the startle reflex, suggesting a role of NE in this behavior. Startle amplitude was also reduced following chronic d-amphetamine treatment. The effect of d-amphetamine on startle was found to be independent of changes in drug-induced locomotor excitation. The data of the present investigation, together with earlier reports, suggests that tolerance occurs to those behaviors that involve a noradrenergic component.

Key words

d-Amphetamine α-Methyl-p-tyrosine FLA-63 Norepinephrine Startle reaction Locomotor activity Sensitization Tolerance 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larry Kokkinidis
    • 1
  • Hymie Anisman
    • 1
  1. 1.Carleton UniversityOhawaCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

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