, Volume 73, Issue 4, pp 318–322

Amphetamine withdrawal: Effects on threshold of intracranial reinforcement

  • Geraldine Cassens
  • Carol Actor
  • Mitchel Kling
  • Joseph J. Schildkraut
Original Investigations


In order to determine whether alterations in sensitivity to rewarding stimuli accompany the biochemical and behavioral changes induced by chronic amphetamine treatment and withdrawal, we explored the effects of chronic administration and withdrawal of d-amphetamine on thresholds of intracranial reinforcement in the rat. Rats were injected with d-amphetamine sulfate according to a chronic, escalating dose schedule. Marked decreases in threshold of intracranial reinforcement were observed immediately (0–1 h) following the last injection of d-amphetamine. In contrast, all animals showed marked increases in thresholds of intracranial reinforcement 24–48 h after the last injection of d-amphetamine. These findings were discussed in relation to amphetamine-induced and naturally occurring depressions in man.

Key words

Amphetamine Self-stimulation Thresholds Reinforcement Rats 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geraldine Cassens
    • 1
  • Carol Actor
    • 1
  • Mitchel Kling
    • 1
  • Joseph J. Schildkraut
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Neuropsychopharmacology LaboratoryMassachusetts Mental Health CenterBostonUSA

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