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Eine experimentelle Untersuchung über Strategienlernen denkgestörter Schizophrener

An experimental study of strategy learning in schizophrenic patients

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Summary

The present research was concerned with one aspect of problemsolving behaviour, starting from the Cameron and Payne theory of “overinclusion” for the description of schizophrenic thought disorders. The easiest way of monitoring this kind of behaviour is probably by means of test material for strategy learning. A sample of 20 normal and 20 schizophrenic subjects had to discover the four letters “H”, “Y”, “T” and “M” in 50 successive trials. Since the letters had characteristic features in common, the application of a “simultaneous scanning strategy” with exactly two questions allowed a solution to be formed in each case. The results clearly demonstrated that all subjects learned a strategy but that there were significant differences between the two groups in the type of strategy. Schizophrenics developed a typically different strategy, i.e. a “successive scanning strategy”. These results lead to some conclusions relevant to the application of therapeutic methods.

Zusammenfassung

Die vorliegende Untersuchung befaßte sich, ausgehend von der Theorie der “overinclusion” nach Cameron bzw. Payne zur Beschreibung schizophrener Denkstörungen, mit einem Aspekt des Problemlösungsverhaltens. Solches Verhalten kann wohl am leichtesten durch ein Testmaterial zum Strategienlernen kontrolliert werden. 20 Normale und 20 Schizophrene mußten die vier Buchstaben „H, Y, T und M“ in 50 aufeinanderfolgenden Versuchen erraten. Da die Buchstaben charakteristische Gemeinsamkeiten hatten, konnte eine Lösung in jedem Fall gefunden werden, bei Anwendung einer „Simultanstrategie“ mit genau zwei Fragen. Die Ergebnisse machten deutlich, daß alle Versuchspersonen eine Strategie erlernten, daß aber signifikante Unterschiede zwischen den beiden Stichproben hinsichtlich der Art ihrer Strategie bestand. Schizophrene hatten eine charakteristisch andere, eine „Sukzessivstrategie“ entwickelt. Aus den Ergebnissen wurden einige Schlußfolgerungen für die Anwendung therapeutischer Maßnahmen gezogen.

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Maier, S., Rey, E.-. Eine experimentelle Untersuchung über Strategienlernen denkgestörter Schizophrener. Psychol. Forsch. 36, 359–374 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00424573

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