Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The effect of exercise on atherosclerosis in the coronary artery and abdominal aorta of mature female swine

Summary

This study investigated the effects of chronic exercise on atherosclerosis in the aorta and coronary artery in mature female swine. Preceding and during the exercise training period these animals were fed high fat, (soybean or corn oil) cholesterol-free diets. Sixteen swine were paired according to breed, body weight, and diet. Eight swine were a non-exercise control group while the remaining eight were an experimental group and exercised 4 days per week for 4 months. The exercise training program initially consisted of running at 5.6 km·h−1, zero gradient, for 15 min with increments of 1 min of running time every 2 weeks.

The amount of atherosclerosis in the coronary artery and abdominal aorta was determined directly. Plasma lipids, body weight, body potassium, and percent fat were recorded at three intervals during the training program. Four months of exercise had no significant effect on plasma cholesterol, phospholipids, total lipids or triglycerides, although there was a significant effect of test periods on cholesterol. Diet was found to have no influence on plasma lipids. The exercise group did not have larger heart weights, ratio of heart weight to body weight or ratio of heart weight to fat-free body weight. The percent lipid in the lesion area and the lesion surface area of the abdominal aorta was not significantly different between the two groups. The amount of lipid obtained from the intima-media of the coronary artery and the lesion area involvement was not significantly different between the exercise group and the non-exercise group. It is concluded that 4 months of exercise had no effect on plasma lipids, body potassium, body weight, or coronary and aortic atherosclerosis.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Banister, E. W., Tomanek, R. J., Cvorkov, N.: Ultrastructural modifications in rat heart responses to exercise and training. Am. J. Physiol.220, 1935–1940 (1971)

  2. 2.

    Berkson, D. M., Stamler, J., Lindberg, H. A., Miller, W. A., Stevens, E. L., Soyngene, R., Tokich, T. J., Stamler, R.: Atherosclerosis — Proceedings of the Second International Symposium. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1970

  3. 3.

    Brainard, J. B.: Effect of prolonged exercise on atherogenesis in the rabbit. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.100, 244–246 (1959)

  4. 4.

    Brown, C. E., Huang, T. C., Bortz, E. L., McCay, C. M.: Observations on blood vessels and exercise. J. Gerontol.11, 292–297 (1956)

  5. 5.

    Campbell, D. E.: Influence of several physical activities on serum cholesterol concentrations in young men. J. Lipid Res.6, 478–480 (1965)

  6. 6.

    Carlson, L. A., Mossfeldt, F.: Acute effects of prolonged heavy exercise on the concentration of plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man. Acta Physiol. Scand.62, 51–59 (1964)

  7. 7.

    Cooper, K. H., Leverett, S.: Physical conditioning versus +Gz tolerance. Aerospace Med.37, 462 (1966)

  8. 8.

    Devries, H. A.: Physiological effects of exercise training regimen upon men aged 52 to 88. J. Gerontol.25, 325–336 (1970)

  9. 9.

    Eckstein, R. W.: Effect of exercise and coronary arterial narrowing on coronary collateral circulation. Circulation5, 230–235 (1957)

  10. 10.

    Fox, S. M., Haskell, W. L.: Physical activity and the prevention of coronary heart disease. Bull N.Y. Acad. Med.44, 950–965 (1968)

  11. 11.

    Fredrickson, D. S., Lees, R. S.: Familial hyperlipoproteinemia. In the metabolic basis of inherited disease, Stanburg, J. B., Wyngaarden, J. B., Fredrickson, D. S. (eds.), 2nd ed., pp. 430. New York: McGraw Hill 1966

  12. 12.

    Gass, G. C.: Procedures for separating intimal and medial layers of coronary and aortic arteries. Dissertation, Univ. of Illinois 1974

  13. 13.

    Goode, R. C., Firstbrook, J. B., Shepard, R. J.: Effects of exercise and a cholesterol-free diet on human serum lipids. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.44, 575–580 (1966)

  14. 14.

    Hellerstein, H. K.: Exercise therapy in coronary disease. Bull N.Y. Acad. Med.44, 1028–1047 (1968)

  15. 15.

    Holloszy, J. O., Skinner, J. S., Toro, G., Cureton, T. K.: Effects of a six-month program of endurance exercise on the serum lipids of middle-aged men. Am. J. Cardiol.14, 753–760 (1964)

  16. 16.

    Holman, R. L., McGill, H. C., Strong, J. P., Geer, J. C.: Technics for studying atherosclerotic lesions. Lab. Invest.7, 42–47 (1958)

  17. 17.

    Huerga, J. C. de la, Yesinick, C., Popper, H.: Estimation of total serum lipids by a turbidimetric method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol.23, 1163–1167 (1953)

  18. 18.

    Kaplinsky, E., Hood, W. B., McCarthy, B., McCombs, H. L., Lown, B.: Effects of physical training in dogs with coronary artery ligation. Circulation37, 556–565 (1968)

  19. 19.

    Kipshidze, N. N.: The effect of physical strain on the development of experimentally induced atherosclerosis. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. (Russ.)46, 1316–1321 (1958)

  20. 20.

    Kobernick, S. D., Niwayama, G., Zuchlewski, A. C.: Effect of physical activity on cholesterol atherosclerosis in rabbits. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol.96, 623–628 (1957)

  21. 21.

    Kobernick, S. D., Niwayama, G.: Physical Activity in experimental cholesterol atherosclerosis of rabbits. Am. J. Pathol.36, 393–409 (1960)

  22. 22.

    Link, R. P., Pedersoli, W. M., Safanie, A. H.: Effect of exercise on development of atherosclerosis in swine. Atherosclerosis15, 107–122 (1972)

  23. 23.

    Lohman, I. G., Romack, F. R.: Comparison of corn oil versus partially hydrogenated soy oil on atherosclerosis. World Soybean Res. 883–889 (1976)

  24. 24.

    Luginbuhl, H., Jones, J. E. T.: The morphology and morphogenesis of atherosclerosis in aged swine. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.127, 763–779 (1965)

  25. 25.

    Lumb, G. D., Hardy, L. B.: Collateral circulation and survival related to gradual occlusion of the right coronary artery in the pig. Circulation27, 717–721 (1963)

  26. 26.

    McAllister, F. F., Bertsch, R., Jacobson, J., D'Alessio, G.: The accelerating effect of muscular exercise on experimental atherosclerosis. Arch. Surg.80, 54–60 (1960)

  27. 27.

    Manelis, G., Eschchnar, J., Altman, S., Madan, M., Brunner, D.: Physical activity at work, lipoproteins, and the incidence of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and death due to ischemic heart disease. Isr. J. Med. Sci.5, 766–790 (1969)

  28. 28.

    Mann, G. V., Spoerry, A., Gray, M., Jarashow, D.: Atherosclerosis in the Masai. Am. J. Epidemiol.95, 26–34 (1972)

  29. 29.

    Mann, G. V., Shaffer, R. D., Anderson, R. S., Sandstead, H. H.: Cardiovascular Research in the Masai. J. Atheroscler. Res.4, 289–312 (1964)

  30. 30.

    Moodey, D. L., Kollias, J., Buskirk, E. R.: The effect of a moderate exercise program on body weight and skinfold thickness in overweight college women. Med. Sci. Sports1, 75–81 (1969)

  31. 31.

    Morris, J. N., Kagan, A., Pattison, D. S., Gardener, M. J., Raffle, P. A. B.: Incidence and prediction of ischaemic heart disease in London bus men. Lancet2, 553–559 (1966)

  32. 32.

    Naughton, J., Shanbour, K., Armstrong, R., McCoy, J., Lategola, M. T.: Cardiovascular responses to exercise following myocardial infarction. Arch. Intern. Med.117, 541–545 (1966)

  33. 33.

    Penpargkul, S., Scheuer, J.: The effect of physical training upon the mechanical and metabolic performance of the rat heart. J. Clin. Invest.49, 1859–1868 (1970)

  34. 34.

    Roman, J. R., Palmer, I. S.: Photoreflectometric method for the quantitative analysis of neutral lipids after thin-layer chromatography. Analyt. Biochem.49, 580–584 (1972)

  35. 35.

    Search, R. L., Berguist, L.: A new color reaction for quantitation of serum cholesterol. Clin. Chim. Acta5, 192–199 (1960)

  36. 36.

    Skold, B. H., Getty, R., Ramsey, F. K.: Spontaneous atherosclerosis in the arterial system of ageing swine. Am. J. Vet. Res.27, 257–273 (1966)

  37. 37.

    Smith, E. G., Evans, P. H., Downham, M. D.: Lipid in aorta intima. The correlation of morphological and chemical characteristics, J. Atheroscler. Res.7, 171–186 (1967)

  38. 38.

    Solberg, L. A., Mc Garry, P. A., Moossy, J., Strong, J. P., Tejada, C., Loken, A. C.: Severity of atherosclerosis in cerebral arteries, coronary arteries, and aortas. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.149, 956–973 (1968)

  39. 39.

    Spain, D. M., Bradness, V. A.: Occupational physical activity and the degree of coronary atherosclerosis in “normal” men: a postmortem study. Circulation22, 239–242 (1960)

  40. 40.

    Stevenson, J. A. F.: Exercise, food intake, and health in experimental animals. J. Can. Med. Ass.96, 862–866 (1967)

  41. 41.

    Swenson, M. J.: Duke's Physiology of Domestic Animals 8th ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press 1970

  42. 42.

    Taussky, H. H., Shorr, E.: A microcolorimetric method for the determination of inorganic phosphorous. J. Biol. Chem.202, 675–685 (1953)

  43. 43.

    Tomanek, R. J., Taunton, C. A., Liskop, K. S.: Relationship between age, chronic exercise, and connective tissue of the heart. J. Gerontol.27, 33–38 (1972)

  44. 44.

    Twardock, A. R., Lohman, T. G., Smith, G. S., Breidstein, B. C.: The Illinois animal science counter: performance characteristics and animal radioactivity measurement procedures. Anim. Sci.25, 1209–1217 (1966)

  45. 45.

    Warnock, N. H., Clarkson, T. B., Stevenson, R.: Effect of exercise on blood coagulation time and atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed cockerels. Circ. Res.5, 478–480 (1957)

  46. 46.

    Wolffe, J. B.: Continued vigorous physical activity as a possible factor in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Circulation16, 517 (1957)

  47. 47.

    Wong, H. Y. C., Johnson, F. B., Wong, A., Anderson, J., Liu, D.: Effect of exercise and androgen on cholesterol-fed capons. Circulation16, 501 (1957)

  48. 48.

    Wong, H. Y. C., David, S., Orimiukwe, S. O.: Reversal of induced experimental atherosclerosis of cholesterol fed cockerels by exercise. Fed. Proc. (Abstr.)147 (1973)

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gass, G.C., Romack, F.E. & Lohman, T.G. The effect of exercise on atherosclerosis in the coronary artery and abdominal aorta of mature female swine. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 42, 235–246 (1979). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00423293

Download citation

Key words

  • Exercise
  • Plasma lipids
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Swine