Advertisement

Activity of mono- and biarticular leg muscles during sprint running

  • Erik B. Simonsen
  • Leif Thomsen
  • Klaus Klausen
Article

Summary

A cinematographic recording of the movements of the lower limbs together with simultaneous emg tracings from nine lower limb muscles were obtained from two male track sprinters during three phases of a 100 m sprint run. The extensor muscles of the hip joint were found to be the primary movers by acceleration of the body's center of gravity (C.G.) during the ground phase of the running cycle. The extensors of the knee joint were also important in this, but to a minor extent, while the plantar flexors of the ankle joint showed the least contribution. The biarticular muscles functioned in a way different from the monoarticular muscles in the sense that they perform eccentric work during the flight and recovery phases and concentric work during the whole ground phase (support), whereas the monoarticular muscles are restricted first to eccentric work and then to concentric work during the ground phase. Furthermore, the biarticular muscles show variation (and rate of variation) in muscle length to a larger extent than the monoarticular muscles. Paradoxical muscle actions appear to take place around the knee joint, where the hamstring muscles, m. gastrocnemius, m. vastus laterialis and m. vastus medialis act as synergists by extending the knee joint during the last part of the ground phase.

Key words

Electromyography Cinematography Muscle length Muscle moments Sprint running 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asmussen E, Bonde-Petersen F (1974) Storage of elastic energy in skeletal muscles in man. Acta Physiol Scand 91:385–392Google Scholar
  2. Ballreich R (1969) Weg- und Zeit-Merkmale von Sprintbewegungen. Bartels und Wernitz, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  3. Bigland-Ritchie B, Johansson R, Lippold OCJ, Woods JJ 1983 Contractile speed and EMG changes during fatigue of sustained maximal voluntary contractions. Neurophysiol 50:No. 1Google Scholar
  4. Brandell RB (1968) An electromyografic-cinematografic study of the thigh-muscles using M.E.R.D. Electromyografics, [Suppl. 1], pp 67–75Google Scholar
  5. Brandell RB (1969) An analysis of muscle coordination in walking and running gaits. Med Sport 8:278–287Google Scholar
  6. Carlsö S, Molbech S (1966) The function of certain two-joint muscles in a closed muscular chain. Acta Morphol Neerl Scand VI:376–286Google Scholar
  7. Dempster, WT (1955) Space requirements of the seated operator. WADC. Technical Report, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, pp 55–159Google Scholar
  8. Fenn WO (1930) Work against gravity and work due to velocity changes in running. Am J Physiol 93:433–462Google Scholar
  9. Frigo C, Pedotti A (1978) Determination of muscle length during locomotion. Biochechanics VI-A:355–360Google Scholar
  10. Hof LA, van den Berg J (1981) The role of muscle elasticity in walking studied with EMG to force processing. Biomechanics VII-B:39–43Google Scholar
  11. Laananen H, Brooks CM (1978) Determination of critical parameters for spiked track shoe design through analysis of sprinter motion. Biomechanics VI-A:310–316Google Scholar
  12. Lombard PW, Abbott FM (1907) The mechanical effect produced by the contraction of individual muscles of the thigh of the frog. Am J Physiol 20Google Scholar
  13. Mann RV (1981) A kinetic analysis of sprinting. Med Sci Sports Exercise 13:325–328Google Scholar
  14. Mann RV, Sprague P (1980) A kinetic analysis of the ground leg during sprint running. Res Qart Exercise Sport. 51:334–348Google Scholar
  15. Miller D, Nelson RC (1976) Biomechanics of sport. Lea and Febinger, Philadelphia, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Pedotti A (1977) A study of motor coordination and neuromuscular activities in human locomotion. Biol Cybern 26:53–62Google Scholar
  17. Rash GK, Burke PJ (1977) Kinesiology and applied anatomi. Lea and Febinger, Philadelphia, USAGoogle Scholar
  18. Volkov NI, Lapin VI (1979) Analysis of the velocity curve in sprint running. Med Sci Sports 11:332–337Google Scholar
  19. Winter DA (1979) Biomechanics of human movements. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik B. Simonsen
    • 1
  • Leif Thomsen
    • 1
  • Klaus Klausen
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for the Theory of Gymnastics, August Krogh InstituteUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations