Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery

, Volume 114, Issue 2, pp 112–118 | Cite as

Mechanical and histological evaluation of hydroxyapatite-coated, titanium-coated and grit-blasted surfaces under weight-bearing conditions

  • A. Dávid
  • J. Eitenmüller
  • G. Muhr
  • A. Pommer
  • H. F. Bär
  • P. A. W. Ostermann
  • T. A. Schildhauer
Original Article


Cylindric titanium rods with different surfaces were axially implanted into the femora of sheep. The three surfaces were grit-blasted titanium, plasma-sprayed titanium and plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA). After 2 months, a 2-cm segment of the femoral shaft was completely resected to load the implant, and the animals were allowed full weight-bearing for 9 months. Biomechanical and histological evaluation of the implants was undertaken 2 months after implantation and 9 months after the segmental resection. The mechanical testings of well-fixed implants were performed 9 months after segmental resection. Loosening of 45% of the titanium-coated implants was observed in the first 3 weeks, but thereafter, no further loosening occurred. The HA-coated implants remained entirely fixed for 3 weeks, but thereafter, a progressively increasing incidence of loosening up to 55% after 9 months of loading was detected as subsidence on X-radiographs. The maximum push-out strength of the titanium-coated implants was 4.9 MPa compared with 2.3 MPa for HA-coated ones. No significant mechanical interlock between the grit-blasted surface and bone was observed. The HA coating was found to be delaminated in all unstable implants, whereas the titanium coating remained completely intact. Morphometric analyses of well-fixed rods showed complete bony ingrowth onto the HA surface, whereas the contact area between the bone and the two titanium surfaces was less than 40%. Concerning clinical significance bony ingrowth with long-term mechanical interlock between the implant surface and the bone cannot be achieved by grit-blasting or HA-coating. The titanium plasma-coating, however, can induce a bone-implant interface which resists the mechanical stress resulting from continuous cyclic loading in vivo.


Segmental Resection Titanium Coating Mechanical Interlock Bony Ingrowth Complete Bony 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Dávid
    • 1
  • J. Eitenmüller
    • 1
  • G. Muhr
    • 1
  • A. Pommer
    • 1
  • H. F. Bär
    • 1
  • P. A. W. Ostermann
    • 1
  • T. A. Schildhauer
    • 1
  1. 1.Chirurgische Universitätsklinik Bergmannsheil, Ruhr UniversitätBochum 1Germany

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