Relation between pedalling- and breathing rhythm
The relationship between pedalling- and breathing rhythm was studied in 34 medical students (“non-cyclists”) and 10 racing cyclists on an electromagnetic bicycle-ergometer, the effective work load of which (50 W, 100 W, 150 W, 200 W) was independent of the pedalling rate. The criteria used were integer p/b ratios (pedalling rate being a multiple of breathing frequency) and phase coupling (the breathing phases starting preferentially at a certain angle of the pedalling cycle).
Unconsciously occurring coordination of pedalling and breathing rhythm was found in the majority of the test persons; 70%–100% of the racing cyclists, 50%–63% of the regularly breathing and 25%–33% of the irregularly breathing non-cyclists showed integer p/b ratios. This tendency decreased with increasing work load. Phase coupling was even more frequent than integer p/b ratios and was not affected by increasing work load. The majority of racing cyclists (unlike the non-cyclists) coupled the inspiration-onset with the onset of either the left or the right leg movement. Expiratory phase coupling, however, was analogous in all groups; expiration began preferentially at mid-contraction of either leg.
The results are discussed in terms of relative (nervous) coordination. It is concluded that the tendency to coordination between pedalling- and breathing rhythm increases with pedalling training and with regularity of breathing.
Key wordsPedalling- and breathing rhythm Relative coordination Regulation of breathing Ergometer exercise
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- åstrand PO, Rohdal K (1970) Textbook of work physiology. McGraw Hill, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Bechbache RR, Duffin J (1977) The entrainment of breathing frequency by exercise rhythm. J Physiol (Lond) 272: 553–561Google Scholar
- Dejours P (1959) La règulation de la ventilation au cours de l'exercise musculaire chez l'homme. J Physiol (Paris) 51: 163–261Google Scholar
- Holst E von (1939) Die relative Koordination als PhÄnomen und als Methode zentralnervöser Funktionsanalyse. Ergeb Physiol 42: 228–306Google Scholar
- Kao FF (1963) An experimental study of the pathways involved in exercise hyperpnoea employing cross-circulation techniques. In: Cunningham DJC, Loyd BB (eds) The regulation of human respiration. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 461–502Google Scholar
- Kay JDS, Petersen ES, Vejby-Christensen H (1975) Breathing in man during steady state exercise on the bicycle at two pedalling frequencies and during treadmill walking. J Physiol (Lond) 251: 645–656Google Scholar
- Kelman GR, Watson AWS (1973) Effect of added dead-space on pulmonary ventilation during sub-maximal, steady-state exercise. Q J Exp Physiol 58: 305–313Google Scholar
- Saunders JA (1947) Respiratory rhythm and rhythm of body movement in the human. J Physiol (Lond) 106: 25PGoogle Scholar
- Schwarz G (1973) über die VerÄnderungen der Herz- und Atemperiodenstreuung bei Tretarbeit mit verschiedenen Frequenzen und ihre Beziehung zum Trainingszustand. Inaug Diss, MarburgGoogle Scholar
- Smirnov KM (Ed) (1974) Sportphysiologie. VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, BerlinGoogle Scholar