Advertisement

Psychopharmacologia

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 97–104 | Cite as

A double-blind study on the effects of piracetam upon perceptual and psychomotor performance at varied heart rates in patients treated with artificial pacemakers

  • Krister Lagergren
  • Sten Levander
Short Reports Human Pharmacology

Abstract

Pacemaker-patients have previously been found to have significantly impaired performance in tests of critical flicker fusion (CFF), two-choice reaction time (RT) and vernier visual acuity (KVAT) when the heart rate is reduced from 70 to 45 beats/min in sitting position.

Twelve patients treated with artificial pacemakers were given 1.6 g Piracetam per os three times daily for nine days and placebo for another nine days. The effects on performance were compared in CFF, RT and KVAT at heart rates of 70 and 45 beats/min in sitting position. With placebo, there were significant impairments in CFF and RT at 45 beats/min and a similar trend in KVAT. With Piracetam, there were significantly less impairments in CFF at 45 beats/min and similar trends in RT and KVAT. With Piracetam there were also significant increases in KVAT, irrespective of heart rate, compared with placebo.

With regard to the differences in circulatory dynamics between 70 and 45 beats/min, the results indicate that Piracetam had some protective effect against the influence of an assumed cerebral hypoxia at the lower rate or a cortical arousing effect, which counteracted the decrement in vigilance associated with the slow heart rate.

Key words

Piracetam Perceptual and Psychomotor Performance Cardiac Pacing Heart Rate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bevegård, S., Holmgren, A., Jonsson, B.: The effect of body position on the circulation at rest and during exercise, with special reference to the influence on the stroke volume. Acta physiol. scand. 49, 279–298 (1960)Google Scholar
  2. Bevegård, S., Jonsson, B., Karlöf, I., Lagergren, H., Sowton, E.: Effect of changes in ventricular rate on cardiac output and central pressures at rest and during exercise in patients with artificial pacemakers. Cardiovasc. Res. 1, 21–33 (1967)Google Scholar
  3. Dalessio, D., Benchimol, A., Dimond, G.: Chronic encephalopathy related to heart block: its correction by permanent cardiac pacemaker, Neurology (Minneap.) 15, 499–503 (1965)Google Scholar
  4. Escher, D., Schwedel, J., Schwartz, L., Solomon, N.: Transvenous electrical stimulation of the heart. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 111, 981–991 (1964)Google Scholar
  5. Giurgea, C.: The “nootropic” approach to the integrative activity of the brain. Condition. Reflex 8, 108–115 (1973)Google Scholar
  6. Giurgea, C., Lefevre, D., Lescrener, C., David-Remacle, M.: Pharmacological protection against hypoxia induced amnesia in rats. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 20, 160–168 (1971)Google Scholar
  7. Giurgea, C., Mouravieff-Lesuisse, F., Leemans, R.: Corrélations électro-pharmacologique au cours de l'anoxie oxyprive chez le lapin en respiration libre ou artificielle. Rev. neurol. 122, 484–486 (1971)Google Scholar
  8. Granath, A., Jonsson, B., Starndell, T.: Studies on the central circulation at rest and during exercise in the supine and sitting body position in old men. Acta med. scand. 169, 125–126 (1961)Google Scholar
  9. Krakau, C. E. T.: An automatic apparatus for time series analysis of visual acuity. Vision Res. 7, 99–105 (1967)Google Scholar
  10. Lagergren, K.: The effect of exogenous changes in heart rate upon mental performance in patients treated with artificial pacemakers for complete heart block. Accepted for publication in Brit. Heart J. (1974)Google Scholar
  11. Lagergren, H., Johansson, L.: Intracardiac stimulation for complete heart block. Acta chir. scand. 125, 562–566 (1963)Google Scholar
  12. Lagergren, K., Levander, S.: Effects of changes in heart rate in different body positions upon critical flicker fusion threshold and reaction time performance in patients with artificial pacemakers. Submitted for publication. J. Psychiatr. Res. (1974)Google Scholar
  13. Lagergren, K., Marions, O., Swensson, A., Karlöf, I.: Effects of cardiac pacing on the cerebral circulation: An angiographic study. Invest Radiol. 8, 111–115 (1973)Google Scholar
  14. Levander, S., Lagergren, K.: Four vigilance indicators for use with a minicomputer. Rep. Psychol. Lab., Univer. Stockholm, No. 381 (1973)Google Scholar
  15. Levinson, D., Schubin, H., Gunther, L., Meehan, J.: Hemodynamic findings in heart block with slow ventricular rates. Amer. J. Cardiol. 4, 440–451 (1959)Google Scholar
  16. Patterson, J., Cannon, J.: Postural changes in the cerebral circulation studied by continuous oximetric and pressure-recording techniques. J. clin. Invest. 30, 664 (1951)Google Scholar
  17. Samet, P., Bernstein, W., Medow, A., Nathan, D.: Effect of alterations in ventricular rate on cardiac output in complete heart block. Amer. J. Cardiol. 14, 477–482 (1964)Google Scholar
  18. Scheinberg, P., Stead, E.: The cerebral blood flow in male subjects as measured by the nitrous oxide technique. Normal values for blood flow, oxygen utilization, glucose utilization, and peripheral resistance, with observations on the effect of tilting and anxiety. J. clin. Invest. 28, 1163–1171 (1949)Google Scholar
  19. Segel, N., Hudson, W., Harris, P., Bishop, J.: The circulatory effects of electrically induced changes in ventricular rate at rest and during exercise in complete heart block. J. clin. Invest. 43, 1541–1550 (1964)Google Scholar
  20. Shapiro, W., Chawla, N.: Observations on the regulation of cerebral blood flow in complete heart block. Circulation 40, 863–870 (1969)Google Scholar
  21. Sulg, I., Cronqvist, S., Schüller, H., Ingvar, D.: The effect of intracardial pacemaker therapy on cerebral blood flow and EEG in patients with complete atrioventricular block. Circulation 39, 487–494 (1969)Google Scholar
  22. Winer, B. J.: Statistical principles in experimental design. 1st ed., pp. 248–257. New York: McGraw-Hill 1962Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krister Lagergren
    • 1
  • Sten Levander
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryKarolinska sjukhusetStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations