The influence of temperature on the amplitude and frequency components of the EMG during brief and sustained isometric contractions

  • Jerrold Scott Petrofsky
  • Alexander R. Lind
Article

Summary

The influence of temperature on the amplitude and frequency components of the EMG power spectra of the surface EMG recorded over the forearm muscles was examined in five male and five female subjects during brief and fatiguing isometric contractions of their handgrip muscles. Brief (3 s) isometric contractions were exerted at tensions ranging between 10 and 100% of each subject's maximum strength while fatiguing contractions were exerted at tensions of 25, 40, and 70% of their maximum strength. The temperature of the muscles during those contractions was varied by placing the forearms of the subjects in a controlled temperature water bath at temperatures of 10, 20, 30, and 40‡ C. The results of these experiments showed that the center frequency of the power spectra of the surface EMG was directly related to the temperature of the exercising muscles during brief isometric contractions. During fatiguing isometric contractions, the amplitude of the EMG increased while the center frequency of the EMG power spectra decreased for all tensions examined.

Key words

EMG Isometric exercise Fatigue 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barcroft H, Edholm OG (1946) Temperature and blood flow in the human forearm. J Physiol 104:366–376Google Scholar
  2. Bigland B, Lippold OC (1954) Relationship between force, velocity, and integrated electrical activity in human muscle. J Physiol 123:214–224Google Scholar
  3. Clarke RSJ, Hellon RFR, Lind AR (1958) The duration of sustained contractions of the human forearm at different muscle temperatures. J Physiol 143:454–463Google Scholar
  4. Close R, Hoh JFT (1968) Influence of temperature on isometric contractions of rat skeletal muscle. Nature 217:1179–1180Google Scholar
  5. Cobb S, Forbes A (1923) Electromyographic studies of muscular fatigue in man. J Physiol 65:234–251Google Scholar
  6. Coles DR, Cooper KE (1959) Hyperaemia following arterial occlusion in the warm and cold human forearm. J Physiol 145:241–247Google Scholar
  7. DeLuca CJ (1979) Physiology and mathematics of myoelectric signals. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 26:313–325Google Scholar
  8. De Vries HA (1968) Method of evaluation of muscle fatigue and endurance from electromyographic curves. Am J Phys Med 47:125–135Google Scholar
  9. Eason RG (1960) Electromyographic study of local and generalized muscular impairment. J Appl Physiol 15:479–482Google Scholar
  10. Edwards RHT, Hill DK, Jones DA (1975) Heat production and chemical changes during isometric contractions of the human quadriceps muscles. J Physiol 251:303–315Google Scholar
  11. Fink R, Luttgau HD (1976) An evaluation of membrane constants and potassium conductance in metabolically exhausted fibers. J Physiol 263:215–239Google Scholar
  12. Hermansen L, Saltin B (1969) Oxygen uptake during maximal treadmill and bicycle exercise. J Appl Physiol 26:31–37Google Scholar
  13. Humphreys PW, Lind AR (1963) The blood flow through active and inactive muscles of the forearm during sustained handgrip contractions. J Physiol 166:120–135Google Scholar
  14. Kaiser E, Petersen I (1965) Muscle action potentials studied by frequency analysis and duration measurements. Acta Neurol Scand [Suppl 13] 412Google Scholar
  15. Kogi K, Hakomada T (1962) Slowing of surface electromyogram and muscle strength in muscle fatigue. Reports of the Physiology Lab-Institute of Science and Institute, Tokyo, 60:27–41Google Scholar
  16. Lind AR, Petrofsky JS (1979) Amplitude of the surface electromyograms during fatiguing isometric contractions. Muscle Nerve 2:257–264Google Scholar
  17. Lindström L, Magnusson R, Petersin I (1970) Muscular fatigue and action potential conduction velocity changes studied with frequency analysis of EMG signals. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 10:341–356Google Scholar
  18. Milner-Brown HS, Stein RB (1975) The relation between the surface electromyogram and muscular force. J Physiol 246:549–569Google Scholar
  19. Ortengren R, Andersson G, Broman H, Magnusson R, Petersin I (1975) Vocational electromyography; studies of localized muscle fatigue at the assembly line. Ergonomics 18:157–174Google Scholar
  20. Person RS, Libkind MS (1970) Simulation of electromyograms showing interference patterns. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 28:625–632Google Scholar
  21. Petrofsky JS (1979) Frequency and amplitude analysis of the EMG during exercise on the bicycle ergometer. Eur J Appl Physiol 41:1–15Google Scholar
  22. Petrofsky JS, Lind AR (1978) The influence of muscle temperature on the contractile characteristics of fast and slow muscle in the cat. Physiologist 21:91Google Scholar
  23. Petrofsky JS, Guard A, Phillips CA (1979) The effect of muscle fatigue on the isometric contractile characteristics of skeletal muscle in the cat. Life Sci 24:2285–2292Google Scholar
  24. Petrofsky JS, Betts W, Lind AR (1977) Quantification of the surface EMG. Fed Proc 36:1194Google Scholar
  25. Petrofsky JS, Dahms TE, Lind AR (1975) Power spectrum analysis of the EMG during static exercise. Physiologist 18:350Google Scholar
  26. Petrofsky JS, LeDonne DM, Rinehart JS, Lind AR (1976) Isometric strength and endurance during the menstrual cycle. Eur J Appl Physiol 35:1–10Google Scholar
  27. Petrofsky JS, Lind AR (1975a) Insulative power of body fat on deep muscle temperature and isometric endurance. J Appl Physiol 39:639–642Google Scholar
  28. Petrofsky JS, Lind AR (1975b) The relationship of body fat content to deep muscle temperature and isometric endurance in man. Clin Sci Mol Med 48:405–412Google Scholar
  29. Petrofsky JS, Lind AR (1979) The frequency components of the surface EMG during static exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol (in press)Google Scholar
  30. Piper H (1912) Elektrophysiologie menschlicher Muskeln. Springer, Berlin, p 126Google Scholar
  31. Saltin B, Hermansen L (1966) Esophageal, rectal, and muscle temperature during exercise. J Appl Physiol 21:1757–1762Google Scholar
  32. Sato M (1965) Some problems in the quantitative evaluation of muscle fatigue by frequency analysis of the electromyogram. J Anthropol Soc Nippon 73:20–27Google Scholar
  33. Viitasalo J, Komi P (1977) Signal characteristics of EMG during fatigue. Eur J Appl Physiol 37:111–121Google Scholar
  34. Zuniga EN, Simons DG (1970) Nonlinear relationship between averaged electromyogram potential and muscle tension in normal subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 50:264–272Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerrold Scott Petrofsky
    • 1
  • Alexander R. Lind
    • 2
  1. 1.Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Depts. of Engineering and PhysiologyWright State UniversityDaytonUSA
  2. 2.Dept. of PhysiologySt. Louis UniversitySt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations