Human Genetics

, Volume 92, Issue 6, pp 571–576 | Cite as

Familial true hermaphroditism: paternal and maternal transmission of true hermaphroditism (46,XX) and XX maleness in the absence of Y-chromosomal sequences

  • U. Kuhnle
  • H. P. Schwarz
  • U. Löhrs
  • S. Stengel-Ruthkowski
  • H. Cleve
  • A. Braun
Original Investigations


We report on 46,XX true hermaphroditism and 46,XX maleness coexisting in the same pedigree, with maternal as well as paternal transmission of the disorder. Molecular genetic analysis showed that both hermaphrodites as well as the 46,XX male were negative for Y-chromosomal sequences. Thus, this pedigree is highly informative and allows the following conclusions: first, the maternal as well as paternal transmission of the disorder allows the possibility of an autosomal dominant as well as an X-chromosomal dominant mode of inheritance; second, testicular determination in the absence of Y-specific sequences in familial 46,XX true hermaphrodites as well as in 46,XX males seems to be due to the varying expression of the same genetic defect; and third, there is incomplete penetrance of the defect.


Internal Medicine Genetic Analysis Metabolic Disease Genetic Defect Dominant Mode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. Kuhnle
    • 1
  • H. P. Schwarz
    • 1
  • U. Löhrs
    • 3
  • S. Stengel-Ruthkowski
    • 4
  • H. Cleve
    • 2
  • A. Braun
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Universitäts-KinderklinikMünchenGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Anthropologie und Humangenetik der UniversitätMünchenGermany
  3. 3.Institut für Pathologie der UniversitätMünchenGermany
  4. 4.Kinderzentrum MünchenMünchenGermany

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