Optical and Quantum Electronics

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 369–390

Gain and saturation in semiconductor lasers

  • Jian Huang
  • Lee W. Casperson
Tutorial Review

Abstract

Several approaches have been developed for modelling the gain and saturation behaviour of semiconductor lasers, and this study includes a historical review of these various approaches. Special attention is given to rate equation models and to the possibility of so-called gain nonlinearities that might affect the CW and modulation performance of semiconductor lasers. Discussions are mainly limited to the GaAs/GaAIAs and InGaAsP/InP systems, for which the gain and gain nonlinearities have been most extensively studied.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    G. J. LASHER, Solid State Electron. 7 (1964) 707.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. HAUG, Phys. Rev. 184 (1969) 338.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. J. ADAMS, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a): Appl. Res. 1 (1970) 143.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. J. ADAMS, Opto-Electronics 5 (1973) 201.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. SALATHE, C. VOUMARD and H. WEBER, Opto-Electronics 6 (1974) 451.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. OLSHANSKY, C. B. SU, J. MANNING and W. POWAZINIK, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 20 (1984) 838.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    N. K. DUTTA and R. J. NELSON, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 18 (1982) 871.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. K. DUTTA, R. L. HARTMAN and W. T. TSANG, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19 (1983) 1243.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. K. DUTTA, R. L. HARTMAN and W. T. TSANG, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19 (1983) 1613.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. W. HAKKI and L. PAOLI, J. Appl. Phys. 44 (1973) 4113.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. BOERS and T. VLAARDINGERBROEK, Electron. Lett. 11 (1975) 206.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Z. WILCOX, G. L. PETERSON, S. OU, J. J. YANG, M. JANSEN and D. SCHECHTER, J. Appl. Phys. 64 (1988) 6564.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. J. ADAMS and B. THOMAS, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 13 (1977) 580.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. COPELAND, Electron. Lett. 14 (1978) 809.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    T.-P. LEE, C. A. BURRUS, J. A. COPELAND, A. G. DENTAI and D. MARCUSE, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 18 (1982) 1101.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. E. BOWERS, B. R. HEMENWAY, A. H. GNAUCK and D. P. WILT, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 22 (1986) 833.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. P. AGRAWAL, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 21 (1985) 680.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. C. CARTLEDGE and G. S. BURLEY, J. Lightwave Technol. 7 (1989) 568.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. Y. LAU and A. YARIV, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 21 (1985) 121.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. PAULUS, R. LANGENHORST and D. JAGER, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24 (1988) 1519.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. TANG and S. WANG, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50 (1987) 1861.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    W. J. WAY, J. Lightwave Technol. LT 5 (1987) 305.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. HEMERY, L. CHUSSEAR and J.-M. LOURTIOZ, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26 (1990) 633.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. J. CHANIN, J. Appl. Phys. 50 (1979) 3858.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. S. TUCKER and D. J. POPE, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19 (1983) 1179.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    N. CHINONE, K. AIKI, M. NAKAMURA and R. ITO, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 14 (1978) 625.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    K. FURUYA, Y. SUEMATSU and T. HONG, Appl. Opt. 17 (1978) 1949.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. J. ADAMS and M. OSINSKI, Electron. Lett. 19 (1983) 627.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. MANNING, R. OLSHANSKY, D. M. FYE and W. POWAZINIK, Electron. Lett. 21 (1985) 496.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. E. BOWERS, T. L. KOCH, B. R. HEMENWAY, P. D. WILT, T. J. BRIDGES and E. G. BURKHARDT, Electron. Lett. 21 (1985) 297.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. E. BOWERS, Solid-State Electron. 30 (1987) 1.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    K. Y. LAU, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52 (1988) 257.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. S. TUCKER, IEE Proc. Part I 128 (1982) 180.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. S. TUCKER and I. KAMINOW, J. Lightwave Technol. LT 2 (1984) 385.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    R. S. TUCKER, J. Lightwave Technol. LT 3 (1985) 1180.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    G. P. AGRAWAL, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57 (1990) 1.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    T. L. KOCH and R. A. LINKE, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48 (1986) 613.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    G. MORTHIER, P. VANKWIKELBERGE, F. BUYTAERT and R. BAETS, IEE Proc. Part J. 137 (1990) 30.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. TOHYAMA, R. TAKAHASHI and T. KAMIYA, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27 (1991) 2201.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. SCHATZ, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28 (1992) 1443.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. P. AGRAWAL, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49 (1986) 1013.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    R. F. KAZARINOV, C. H. HENRY and R. A. LOGAN, J. Appl. Phys. 53 (1982) 4631.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    B. N. GOMATAM and A. P. DEFONZO, J. Appl. Phys. 64 (1988) 1555.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    A. P. DEFONZO and B. N. GOMATAM, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56 (1990) 611.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    B. N. GOMATAM and A. P. DEFONZO, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26 (1990) 1689.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. R. HJELME and A. R. MICKELSON, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25 (1987) 1625.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    N. Ogasawara, R. Ito, K. Tone and H. Nakae, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 23 (1984) L518.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    M. WILLATZEN, A. USKOV, J. MORK, H. OLESEN, B. TROMBORG and A. P. JAUHO, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3 (1991) 606.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    C. B. KIM, E. T. PENG, C. B. SU, W. RIDEOUT and G. H. CHA, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4 (1992) 969.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    G. P. AGRAWAL, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 23 (1987) 860.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    H. YASAKA, K. TAKAHATA, N. YAMAMOTO and M. NAGANUMA, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3 (1991) 879.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    T. OGAWA, Y. IDA and K. HAYASHI, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4 (1992) 345.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    M. WILLATZEN, T. TAKAHASHI and Y. ARAKAWA, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4 (1992) 682.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    H. YASAKA, Y. YOSHIKUNI and M. WATANABE, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27 (1991) 2248.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    G. P. AGRAWAL and N. K. DUTTA, Long-Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers, Chapter 2 (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1985).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    L. W. CASPERSON, J. Appl. Phys. 46 (1975) 5194.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    T. MUKAI and Y. YAMAMOTO, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 17 (1981) 1028.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    K. Y. LAU and A. YARIV, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40 (1982) 763.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    S. E. MILLER, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 23 (1987) 1071.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    P.-L. LIU and M. M. CHOY, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25 (1989) 1767.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. C. CARTLEDGE and A. F. ELREFAIE, J. Lightwave Technol. 8 (1990) 704.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    D. MARCUSE and F. R. NASH, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 18 (1982) 30.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    D. MARCUSE, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19 (1983) 63.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    D. MARCUSE and T.-P. LEE, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19 (1983) 1397.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    D. MARCUSE, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 20 (1984) 1139.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    D. MARCUSE, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 21 (1985) 154.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    T.-P. LEE, C. A. BURRUS, J. A. COPELAND, A. G. DENTAI and D. MARCUSE, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 18 (1982) 1101.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    C.-H. LEE and S.-Y. SHIN, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25 (1989) 878.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    J. BUUS, IEE Proc. Part J 132 (1985) 42.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    A. S. SUDBO, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 23 (1987) 1127.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. Z. WILCOX and L. W. CASPERSON, J. Appl. Phys. 56 (1984) 57.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    B. THEDREZ, A. JONES and R. FREY, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24 (1988) 1499.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    F.DEROUGEMONT and R. FREY, Phys. Rev. B. 37 (1988) 1237.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    P. B. HANSEN, J. M. WIESENFELD, G. EISENSTEIN, R. S. TUCKER and G. RAYBON, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25 (1989) 2611.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    G. Lasher and F. Stern, Phys. Rev. 133 (1964) A533.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    H. C. CASEY Jr. and F. STERN, J. Appl. Phys. 47 (1976) 631.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    F. STERN, J. Appl. Phys. 47 (1976) 5382.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    F. STERN, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 9 (1973) 290.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    N. K. DUTTA, J. Appl. Phys. 51 (1980) 6095.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    B. W. HAKKI and T. L. PAOLI, J. Appl. Phys. 46 (1975) 1299.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    M. OSINSKI and M. J. ADAMS, IEE Proc. Part I 129 (1982) 229.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    F. MARINELLI, Solid-State Electron. 8 (1965) 939.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    H. GHAFOORI-SHIRAZ, J. Lightwave Technol. 6 (1988) 500.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    M. ASADA and Y. SUEMATSU, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 21 (1985) 434.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Y. Nishimura, K. Kobayashi, T. Ikegami and Y. Suematsu, Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference, No. 20. Kyoto, Japan, September 1970.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Y. Nishimura, K. Kobayashi, T. Ikegami and Y. Suematsu, Proceedings of Technical Meeting IECE Japan, No. QE71-22, September 1971.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Y. NISHIMURA and Y. NISHIMURA, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 9 (1973) 1011.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    W. E. Lamb, Jr., Phys. Rev. 134 (1964) A1429.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    B. ZEE, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 14 (1978) 727.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    M. YAMADA, K. HAYANO, H. ISHIGURO and Y. SUEMATSU, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 18 (1979) 1531.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    M. YAMADA and Y. SUEMATSU, Semiconductor Diode Lasers, edited by W. Streifer and M. Ettenberg (IEEE Press, New York, 1991) pp. 5–12.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    M. YAMADA and Y. SUEMATSU, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 15 (1979) 743.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    M. YAMADA and Y. SUEMATSU, J. Appl. Phys. 52 (1981) 2653.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    H. ISHIKAWA, H. IMAI, T. TANAHASHI and M. TAKUSAGAWA, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38 (1981) 962.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    D. T. CASSIDY, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 20 (1984) 913.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    T. MUKAI, K. INOUE and T. SAITOH, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51 (1987) 381.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    M. T. TAVIS, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19 (1983) 1302.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    W. W. CHOW, G. C. DENTE and D. DEPATIE, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 23 (1987) 1314.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    G. P. AGRAWAL, J. Appl. Phys. 63 (1988) 1232.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    G. P. AGRAWAL, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1 (1989) 419.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    G. P. AGRAWAL, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26 (1990) 1901.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Y. C. A. WONG and K. A. SHORE, IEE Proc. Part J. 139 (1992) 243.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    M. YAMADA, J. Appl. Phys. 66 (1989) 81.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Y. ARAKAWA and T. TAKAHASHI, Electron. Lett. 25 (1989) 169.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    S. KOBAYASHI and T. KIMURA, Electron. Lett. 16 (1980) 230.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    N. OGASAWARA and R. ITO, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 27 (1988) 615.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    H. S. SOMMERS Jr., IEE Proc. Part I 129 (1982) 262.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    J. A. COPELAND, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 16 (1980) 721.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    H. S. Sommers, Jr. and D. O. North, Solid-State Electron. (1976) 675.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    R. DINGLE, W. WIEGMANN and C. H. HENRY, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (1974) 827.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    G. P. AGRAWAL and N. K. DUTTA, Long Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers, Chapter 9 (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1986).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    A. Yariv, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. (1989) 25.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Y. ARAKAWA and A. YARIV, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 22 (1986) 1887.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    D. AHN and S.-L. CHUANG, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24 (1988) 2400.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    T. C. CHONG and C. G. FONSTAD, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25 (1989) 171.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    I. SUEMUNE, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55 (1989) 2579.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    D. F. WELCH, W. STREIFER, C. F. SCHAUS, S. SUN and P. L. GOURLEY, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56 (1990) 10.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    R. H. YAN, S. W. CORZINE, L. A. COLDREN and I. SUEMUNE, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26 (1990) 213.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    S. R. CHINN, P. S. ZORY and A. R. REISINGER, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24 (1988) 2191.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    H. KOBAYASHI, H. IWAMURA, T. SAKU and K. OTSUKA, Electron. Lett. 19 (1983) 166.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    S. COLAK, R. EPPENGA and M. F. H. SCHUURMANS, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 23 (1987) 960.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    D. AHN and S. L. CHUANG, J. Appl. Phys. 64 (1988) 6143.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    U. EKENBERG and M. ALTARELLI, Phys. Rev. B 30 (1984) 3569.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    R. C. MILLER, A. C. GOSSARD, G. D. SANDERS, Y.-C. CHANG and J. N. SCHULMAN, Phys. Rev. B 32 (1985) 8452.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Y.-C. CHANG and J. N. SCHULMAN, Phys. Rev. B 31 (1985) 2069.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    A. TWARDOWSK and C. HERMANN, Phys. Rev. B 35 (1987) 8144.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    M. F. H. SHUURMANS and G. W.'THOOFT, Phys. Rev. B 31 (1985) 8041.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    D. A. BROIDO and L. J. SHAM, Phys. Rev. B 34 (1986) 3917.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    R. Eppenga, M. Schuurmans and S. Colak, Proceedings of the International Conference on Physics of Semiconductors, Stockholm, Sweden, August 1986, p. 453.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    D. AHN and S.-L. CHUANG, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26 (1990) 13.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    H. HAUG and S. W. KOCH, Phys. Rev. A 39 (1989) 1887.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    P. T. LANDSBERG, M. S. ABRAHAMS and M. OSINSKI, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 21 (1985) 24.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    B. W. HAKKI and T. PAOLI, J. Appl. Phys. 40 (1975) 1299.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    C. H. HENRY, R. A. LOGAN and K. A. BERTNESS, J. Appl. Phys. 52 (1981) 4453.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    C. H. HENRY, R. A. LOGAN, H. TEMKIN and F. R. MERRITT, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19 (1983) 941.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    M. P. KESLER and C. HARDER, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2 (1990) 464.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    M. P. KESLER and C. HARDER, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57 (1990) 123.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    D. T. CASSIDY, J. Appl. Phys. 56 (1984) 3096.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    L. A. L. S. CHO, P. M. SMOWTON and B. THOMAS, IEE Proc. Part J 137 (1990) 64.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    M. ASADA, A. KAMEYAMA and Y. SUEMATSU, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 20 (1984) 745.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    M. YAMADA, S. OGITA, M. YAMAGISHI, K. TABATA, N. NAKAYA, M. ASADA and Y. SUEMATSU, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45 (1984) 324.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    M. YAMADA, S. OGITA, M. YAMAGISHI and K. TABATA, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 21 (1985) 640.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    L. D. ZHU, B. Z. ZHENG and G. A. B. FEAK, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25 (1989) 2007.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    T. L. KOCH and J. E. BOWERS, Electron. Lett. 20 (1984) 1038.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    O. NILSSON and Y. YAMAMOTO, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46 (1985) 223.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    W. Z. LIN, J. G. FUJIMOTO, E. P. IPPEN and R. A. LOGAN, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51 (1987) 161.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Y. H. LEE, A. CHAVEZ-PIRSON, S. W. KOCH, H. M. GIBBS, S. H. PARK, J. MORHANGE, A. JEFFERY, N. PEYGHAMBARIAN, L. BANYAI, A. C. GOSSARD and W. WIEGMANN, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 (1986) 2446.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    S. H. PARK, J. F. MORHANGE, A. D. JEFFREY, R. A. MORGAN, A. CHAVEZ-PIRSON, H. M. GIBBS, S. W. KOCH, N. PEYGHAMBARIAN, M. DERSTINE, A. C. GOSSARD, J. H. ENGLISH and W. WEIGMANN, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52 (1988) 1201.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    N. Ogasawara, R. Ito, K. Tone and H. Nakae, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 23 (1984) L518.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    M. S. STIX, M. P. KESLER and E. P. IPPEN, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48 (1986) 1722.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    M. P. KESLER and E. P. IPPEN, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52 (1987) 1765.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    B. C. JOHNSON and A. MOORADIAN, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49 (1986) 1135.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    C. R. PIDGEON, B. S. WHERRETT, A. M. JOHNSTON, J. DEMPSEY and A. MILLER, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42 (1979) 1785.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    J. M. WIESENFELD, R. S. TUCKER and P. M. DOWNEY, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51 (1987) 1307.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    C. B. SU, V. LANIZERA and R. OLSHANSKY, Electron. Lett. 21 (1985) 893.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    S. TSUJI, R. S. VODHANEL and M. M. CHOY, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54 (1989) 90.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jian Huang
    • 1
  • Lee W. Casperson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringPortland State UniversityPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations