Psychological Research

, Volume 60, Issue 4, pp 202–213 | Cite as

Coping with systematic bias during bilateral movement

  • Charles B. Walter
  • Stephan P. Swinnen
  • Daniel M. Corcos
  • Elisana Pollaton
  • Hong-Yan Pan
Original Article

Abstract

The present studies examined the nature of kinematic interlimb interference during bilateral elbow movements of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 frequency ratios and the manner in which subjects cope with coordination bias. Analysis of movement trajectories in the first experiment indicated progressively greater angular velocity assimilation across 2:1 and 3:1 conditions. The desired temporal relationship was maintained by slowing or pausing the low-frequency movement at peak extension while the high-frequency arm produced intervening cycles. An increase in amplitude was also evident for concurrent, homologous cycles. Movement smoothness was emphasized and additional practice was provided in a second experiment. This resulted in dissociated peak angular velocity between limbs and eliminated hesitations and amplitude effects. Bias was still evident, however, as an intermittent approach toward a 1:1 ratio within each cycle. This systematic tendency was somewhat greater at the lower of two absolute frequency combinations but was not influenced by the role of each arm in producing the higher or lower frequency movement. The findings from the first experiment suggest that subjects initially accommodate interlimb kinematic assimilation, while producing the intended timing ratio, by intermittently slowing or pausing the lower-frequency movement. This attenuates the need for bilaterally-disparate movement parameters and provides additional time for organizing residual kinematic differences, perhaps reducing “transient coupling.” Evidence from the second experiment indicates that subtle relative motion preferences are still evident following sufficient practice to perform the movements smoothly. The within-cycle locations of the points of greatest interlimb bias for the 2:1 rhythms were positively displaced from those previously observed for 1:1 oscillations. The persistent coordination tendencies noted in both experiments perhaps reflect an assimilation/compensation cycle and constitute one potential source of the systematic error that often emerges during the acquisition of complex skills.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Annett, M. (1970). A classification of hand preference by association analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 61, 303–321.Google Scholar
  2. Byblow, W. D., & Goodman, D. (1994). Performance asymmetries in multifrequency coordination. Human Movement Science, 13, 147–174.Google Scholar
  3. Cohen, L. (1970). Interaction between limbs during bimanual voluntary activity. Brain, 93, 259–272.Google Scholar
  4. Deutsch, D. (1983). The generation of two isochronous sequences in parallel. Perception and Psychophysics, 34, 331–337.Google Scholar
  5. Duncan, J. (1979). Divided attention: The whole is more than the sum of its parts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 5, 216–228.Google Scholar
  6. Franz, E. A., Zelaznik, H. N., & McCabe, G. (1991). Spatial topological constraints in a bimanual task. Acta Psychologica, 77, 137–151.Google Scholar
  7. Fuchs, A., & Kelso, J. A. S. (1994). A theoretical note on models of interlimb coordination. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20, 1088–1097.Google Scholar
  8. Gunkel, M. (1962). Über relative Koordination bei willkürlichen menschlichen Gliederbewegungen. Pflügers Archiv für die gesamte Physiologic, 275, 472–477.Google Scholar
  9. Haken, H., Kelso, J. A. S., & Bunz, H. (1985). A theoretical model of phase transitions in human hand movements. Biological Cybernetics, 51, 347–356.Google Scholar
  10. Handel, S., & Oshinsky, J. S. (1981). The meter of syncopated auditory polyrhythms. Perception and Psychophysics, 30, 1–9.Google Scholar
  11. Heuer, H. (1993). Structural constraints on bimanual movements. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 55, 83–98.Google Scholar
  12. Heuer, H. (1996). Coordination. In H. Heuer & S. Keele (Eds.), Handbook of perception and action: Vol. 2. Motor skills (pp. 121–180). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  13. Heuer, H., Schmidt, R. A., & Ghodsian, D. (1995). Generalized motor programs for rapid bimanual tasks: A two-level multiplicative-rate model. Biological Cybernetics, 73, 343–356.Google Scholar
  14. Holst, E. von (1973) The behavioral physiology of animals and man. The collected papers of Erich von Holst. Coral Gables: University of Miami Press (Original work published 1937)Google Scholar
  15. Jagacinski, R. J., Marshburn, E., Klapp, S. T., & Jones, M. R. (1988). Test of parallel versus integrated structure in polyrhythmic tapping. Journal of Motor Behavior, 20, 416–442.Google Scholar
  16. Kelso, J. A. S. (1984). Phase transitions and critical behavior in human bimanual coordination. American Journal of Psysiology: Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology, 15, R1000-R1004.Google Scholar
  17. Kelso, J. A. S. (1994). The informational character of self-organized coordination dynamics. Human Movement Science, 13, 393–413.Google Scholar
  18. Kelso, J. A. S., DelColle, J. D., & Schöner, G. (1990). Action perception as a pattern formation process. In M. Jeannerod (Ed.), Attention and performance XIII (pp. 139–169). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Kelso, J. A. S., Scholz, J. P., & Schöner, G. S. (1986). Non-equilibrium phase transitions in coordinated biological motion: Critical fluctuations. Physics Letters, A118, 279–284.Google Scholar
  20. Kelso, J. A. S., Southard, D. L., & Goodman, D. (1979). On the coordination of two-handed movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 5, 229–238.Google Scholar
  21. Klapp, S. T. (1979). Doing two things at once: The role of temporal compatability. Memory and Cognition, 7, 375–381.Google Scholar
  22. Lee, T. D., Swinnen, S. P., & Verschueren, S. (1995). Relative phase alterations during bimanual skill acquisition. Journal of Motor Behavior, 27, 263–274.Google Scholar
  23. Marteniuk, R. G., & MacKenzie, C. L. (1980). A preliminary theory of two-hand coordinated control. In G. E. Stelmach & J. Requin (Eds.), Tutorials in motor behavior (pp. 185–197). Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  24. Peters, M. (1985). Constraints in the coordination of bimanual movements and their expression in skilled and unskilled subjects. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37A, 171–196.Google Scholar
  25. Peters, M. (1994). Does handedness play a role in the coordination of bimanual movement? In S. Swinnen, H. Heuer, J. Massion, & P. Casaer (Eds.), Interlimb coordination: Neural, dynamical, and cognitive constraints (pp. 595–615). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  26. Peters, M., & Schwartz, S. (1989). Coordination of the two hands and effects of attentional manipulation in the production of a bimanual 2:3 polyrhythm. Australian Journal of Psychology, 41, 215–224.Google Scholar
  27. Preilowski, B. (1972). Possible contribution of the anterior forebrain commissures to bilateral motor coordination. Neuropsychologia, 10, 267–277.Google Scholar
  28. Reason, J. T. (1990). Human error. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Rosenbaum, D. A. (1991). Human motor control. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  30. Schmidt, R. A., Zelaznik, H. N., Hawkins, B., Frank, J. S., & Quinn, J. T. (1979). Motor-output variability: A theory for the accuracy of rapid motor acts. Psychological Review, 86, 415–451.Google Scholar
  31. Schmidt, R. C., & Turvey, M. T. (1995). Models of interlimb coordination — Equilibria, local analyses, and spectral patterning: Comment on Fuchs and Kelso (1994). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 29–48.Google Scholar
  32. Schmidt, R. C., Shaw, B. K., & Turvey, M. T. (1993). Coupling dynamics in interlimb coordination. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19, 397–415.Google Scholar
  33. Schmidt, R. C., Treffner, P. J., Shaw, B. K., & Turvey, M. T. (1992). Dynamical aspects of learning an interlimb rhythmic movement pattern. Journal of Motor Behavior, 24, 67–83.Google Scholar
  34. Schöner, G., Zanone, P. G., & Kelso, J. A. S. (1992). Learning as change of coordination dynamics: Theory and experiment. Journal of Motor Behavior, 24, 29–48.Google Scholar
  35. Shea, C. H., Guadagnoli, M. A., & Dean, M. (1995). Response biases: Tonic neck response and aftercontraction phenomenon. Journal of Motor Behavior, 27, 41–51.Google Scholar
  36. Sherwood, D. E. (1994). Hand preference, practice order, and spatial assimilations in rapid bimanual movement. Journal of Motor Behavior, 26, 123–134.Google Scholar
  37. Spijkers, W., & Heuer, H. (1995). Structural constraints on the performance of symmetrical bimanual movements with different amplitudes. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A, 716–740.Google Scholar
  38. Sternad, D., Turvey, M. T., & Schmidt, R. C. (1992). Average phase difference theory and 1:1 entrainment in interlimb coordination. Biological Cybernetics, 67, 223–231.Google Scholar
  39. Summers, J. J. (1990). Temporal constraints on concurrent task performance. In G. E. Hammond (Ed.), Cerebral control of speech and limb movements (pp. 661–680). Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  40. Summers, J. J., & Pressing, J. (1994). Coordinating the two hands in polyrhythmic tapping. In S. Swinnen, H. Heuer, J. Massion, & P. Casaer (Eds.), Interlimb coordination: Neural, dynamical, and cognitive constraints (pp. 571–593). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  41. Summers, J. J., Bell, R., & Burns, B. D. (1989). Perceptual and motor factors in the imitation of simple temporal patterns. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 51, 23–27.Google Scholar
  42. Summers, J. J., Rosenbaum, D. A., Burns, B. D., & Ford, S. K. (1993). Production of polyrhythms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19, 416–428.Google Scholar
  43. Swinnen, S. P., & Walter, C. B. (1991). Towards a movement dynamics perspective on dual-task performance. Human Factors, 33, 367–387.Google Scholar
  44. Swinnen, S. P., Dounskaia, N., Walter, C. B., & Serrien, D. (in press). Preferred and induced coordination modes during the acquisition of bimanual movements with a 2:1 frequency ratio. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance.Google Scholar
  45. Swinnen, S. P., Walter, C. B., Beirinckx, M. B., & Meugens, P. F. (1991). Dissociating structural and metrical specifications of bimanual movement. Journal of Motor Behavior, 23, 263–279.Google Scholar
  46. Swinnen, S. P., Walter, C. B., Serrien, D. J., & Vandendriessche, C. (1992) The effect of movement speed on upper-limb coupling strength. Human Movement Science, 11, 615–636.Google Scholar
  47. Swinnen, S. P., Walter, C. B., & Shapiro, D. C. (1988). The coordination of limb movements with different kinematic patterns. Brain and Cognition, 8, 326–347.Google Scholar
  48. Swinnen, S. P., Young, D. E., Walter, C. B., & Serrien, D. J. (1991). Control of asymmetrical bimanual movements. Experimental Brain Research, 85, 163–173.Google Scholar
  49. Usui, S., & Amidror, I. (1982). Digital low-pass differentiation for biological signal processing. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, BME-29, 686–693.Google Scholar
  50. Walter, C. B., & Swinnen, S. P. (1990a). Kinetic attraction during bimanual coordination. Journal of Motor Behavior, 22, 451–473.Google Scholar
  51. Walter, C. B., & Swinnen, S. P. (1990b). Asymmetric interlimb interference during the performance of a dynamic bimanual task. Brain and Cognition, 14, 185–200.Google Scholar
  52. Walter, C. B., & Swinnen, S. P. (1992). Adaptive tuning of interlimb attraction to facilitate bimanual decoupling. Journal of Motor Behavior, 24, 95–104.Google Scholar
  53. Walter, C. B. & Swinnen, S. P. (1994). The formation and dissolution of “bad habits” during the acquisition of coordination skills. In S. Swinnen, H. Heuer, J. Massion, & P. Casaer (Eds.), Interlimb coordination: Neural, dynamical, and cognitive constraints (pp. 491–513). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  54. Walter, C. B., Corcos, D. M., & Swinnen, S. (1990, March). An experimentally-determined space for the study of multilimb coordination. Paper presented at the Research Consortium of the annual meeting of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, New Orleans, Louisiana.Google Scholar
  55. Walter, C. B., Swinnen, S. P., & Franz, E. (1993). Stability of symmetric and asymmetric discrete bimanual actions. In K. M. Newell & D. M. Corcos (Eds.), Variability and motor control (pp. 359–380). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  56. Woodworth, R. S. (1903). Le mouvement. Paris: Doin.Google Scholar
  57. Yamanishi, J., Kawato, M., & Suzuki, R. (1980). Two coupled oscillators as a model for the coordinated finger tapping by both hands. Biological Cybernetics, 37, 219–225.Google Scholar
  58. Zanone, P. G., & Kelso, J. A. S. (1992). Evolution of behavioral attractors with learning: Nonequilibrium phase transitions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 403–421.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles B. Walter
    • 1
  • Stephan P. Swinnen
    • 2
  • Daniel M. Corcos
    • 3
  • Elisana Pollaton
    • 4
  • Hong-Yan Pan
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Kinesiology, m/c 194University of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Catholic University of LeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.University of Illinois at Chicago and Rush-Presbyterian-Saint Luke's Medical CenterChicago
  4. 4.Democritus University of ThraceGreece

Personalised recommendations