Molecular and General Genetics MGG

, Volume 249, Issue 6, pp 637–647

skippy, a retrotransposon from the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum

  • Nuria Anava
  • M. Isabel G. Roncero
Original Paper

Abstract

A retrotransposon from the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has been isolated and characterized. The element, designated skippy (skp) is 7846 by in length, flanked by identical long terminal repeats (LTR) of 429 by showing structural features characteristic of retroviral and retrotransposon LTRs. Target-site duplications of 5 bp were found. Two long overlapping open reading frames (ORF) were identified. The first ORF, 2562 by in length, shows homology to retroviral gag genes. The second ORF, 3888 bp in length, has homology to the protease, reverse transciptase. RNase H and integrase domains of retroelement pol genes in that order. Sequence comparisons and the order of the predicted proteins from skippy indicate that the element is closely related to the gypsy family of LTR-retrotransposons. The element is present in similar copy numbers in the two races investigated, although RFLP analysis showed differences in banding patterns. The number of LTR sequences present in the genome is higher than the number of copies of complete elements, indicating excision by homologous recombination between LTR sequences.

Key words

Retroelements Fusarium oxysporum Reverse transcriptase 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amstrong GM, Amstrong JK (1990) In: Nelson PE, Toussoun TA, Cook RJ (eds) Fusarium: diseases, biology and taxonomy. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pa., pp 391–399Google Scholar
  2. Bingham PM, Zachar Z (1989) Retrotransposons and the FB transposons from Drosophila melanogaster. In: Berg DE. Howe MM (eds) Mobile DNA. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, pp 485–502Google Scholar
  3. Bradshaw VA, McEntee K (1989) DNA damages activate transcription and transposition of yeast Ty retrotransposons. Mol Gen Genet 218:465–474Google Scholar
  4. Callow JA (1987) Models for host-pathogen interaction. In: Day PR, Jellis GJ (eds) Genetics and plant pathogenesis. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 283–295Google Scholar
  5. Cambareri EB, Helfer J, Kinsey JA (1994) Tadl-l,. an active LINE-like element of Neurospora crassa. Mol Gen Genet 242:658–665Google Scholar
  6. Covey SN (1986) Amino acid sequence homology in the gag region of reverse transcribing elements and the coat protein of cauliflower mosaic virus. Nucleic Acids Res 14:623–633Google Scholar
  7. Daboussi MJ, Langin T (1994) Transposable elements in the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Genetica 93:49–59Google Scholar
  8. Daboussi M-J, Langin T, Brygoo Y (1992) Fot 1, a new family of fungal transposable elements. Mol Gen Genet 232:12–16Google Scholar
  9. Di Pietro A, Anaya N, Roncero MIG (1994) Occurrence of a retrotransposon-like sequence among different formae speciales and races of Fusarium oxysporum Mycol Res 98:993–996Google Scholar
  10. Dobinson KF, Harris RE, Hamer JE (1993) Grasshopper, a long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelement in the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 6:114–126Google Scholar
  11. Doolittle RE, Feng DF, Johnson MS, McClure MA (1989) Origins and evolutionary relationships of retroviruses. Quart Rev Biol 64:1–30Google Scholar
  12. Errede B, Company M, Fercha KJD, Hutchinson CA III (1985) Activation regions in a yeast transposon have homology to mating type control sequences and to mammalian enhancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:5423–5427Google Scholar
  13. Flavell AJ, Smith DB, Kumar A (1992) Extreme heterogeneity of Tyl-copia group retrotransposons in plants. Mol Gen Genet 231:233–242Google Scholar
  14. Friesen PD, Nissen MS (1990) Gene organization and transcription of TED, a lepidopteran retrotransposon integrated in the baculovirus genome. Mol Cell Biol 10:3067–3077Google Scholar
  15. Hamer JE, Farrall L, Orbach MJ, Valent B, Chumley FG (1989) Host species-specific conservation of a family of repeated DNA sequences in the genome of a fungal plant pathogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:9981–9985Google Scholar
  16. Henikoff S (1984) Unidirectional digestion with exonuclease III creates targeted breakpoints for DNA sequencing. Gene 28:351–359Google Scholar
  17. Higgins DH, Sharp PM (1988) CLUSTAL a package for performing multiple sequence alignment on a microcomputer Gene 73:237–244Google Scholar
  18. Johnson MS, McClure MA, Feng DF, Gray J, Dolittle RF (1986) Computer analysis of retroviral pol genes: assignment of enzymatic functions to specific sequences and homologies with non-viral enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:7648–7652Google Scholar
  19. Julien J, Poirier-Hamon S, Brygoo Y (1992) Foret 1, a reverse transcriptase-like sequence in the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Nucleic Acids Res 20:3933–3937Google Scholar
  20. Katoh IT, Yasunaga T, Ikawa Y, Yoshinaga Y (1987) Inhibition of retroviral protease activity by an aspartyl proteinase inhibitor. Nature 329:654–656Google Scholar
  21. Kingsman AJ, Kingsman SM (1988) Ty: a retroelement moving forward. Cell 53:333–334Google Scholar
  22. Kinsey JA, Helber J (1989) Isolation of a transposable element from Neurospora crassa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:1929–1933Google Scholar
  23. Langin T, Capy P, Daboussi M-J (1995) The transposable element impala, a fungal member of the Tcl-mariner superfamily. Mol Gen Genet 246:19–28Google Scholar
  24. Leong SA, Farman ML, Smith JR, Budde A Tosa Y. Nitta N (1994) Molecular genetic approach to the study of cultivr specificity in the rice blast fungus. In: Zeigler RS, Leong SA, Teng PS (eds) Rice blast disease. CAB International Press, Wallindor, UK, pp 87–110Google Scholar
  25. Levin HL, Weaver DC, Boeke JD (1990) Two related families of retrotransposons from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Cell Biol 10:6791–6798Google Scholar
  26. McDonald JF (1993) Evolution and consequences of transposable elements. Curr Biol 3:855–864Google Scholar
  27. McHale MT, Roberts IN, Talbot NJ, Oliver RP (1989) Expression of reverse transcriptase genes in Fulvia fulva. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 2:165–168Google Scholar
  28. McHale MT, Roberts IN, Noble SM, Beaumont C, Whitehead MP, Seth Da, Oliver RP (1992) Cft-1: an LTR-retrotransposon in Cladosporium fulvum, a fungal pathogen of tomato. Mol Gen Genet 233:337–347Google Scholar
  29. Mount SM, Rubin GM (1985) Complete nucleotide sequence of the Drosophila transposable element copia: homology between copia and retroviral protein. Mol Cell Biol 5:1630–1638Google Scholar
  30. Paquin CE, Williamson VM (1988) In: Eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents, Banbury Report 30, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Pouteau S, Grandbastein M-A, Boccara M (1994) Microbial elicitors of plant defense responses activate transcription of a retrotransposon. Plant J 5:535–542Google Scholar
  32. Raeder U, Broda P (1985) Rapid preparation of DNA from filamentous fungi. Lett Appl Microbiol 1:17–20Google Scholar
  33. Robert IN, Oliver RP Punt PJ, van den Hondel CAMJJ (1989) Expression of the Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase gene in industrial and phytopathogenic fungi. Curr Genet 15:177–180Google Scholar
  34. Romao J, Hamer JE (1992) Genetic organization of a repeated DNA sequence family in the rice blast fungus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:5316–5320Google Scholar
  35. Saigo K, Kugimiya W, Matsuo Y, Inouye S, Yoshioka K, Yuki S (1984) The identification of the coding sequence for a reverse transcriptase-like enzyme in a transposable genetic element in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature 312:659–661Google Scholar
  36. Sambrook J, Fritsch E, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR (1979) DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:5463–5467Google Scholar
  38. Southern EM Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Biol 98:503–517Google Scholar
  39. Springer MS, Britten RJ (1993) Phylogenetic relationship of reverse transcriptase and RNase H sequences and aspects of genome structure in the gypsy group of retrotransposons. Mol Biol Evol 10:1370–1379Google Scholar
  40. Valent B, Chumley FG (1991) Molecular genetic analysis of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Annu Rev Phytopathol 29:443–467Google Scholar
  41. Varmus H, Brown P (1989) Retroviruses. In: Berg DE, Howe MM (eds) Mobile DNA. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, pp 53–108Google Scholar
  42. Xiong Y, Eickbush TH (1990) Origin and evolution of retroelements based upon their reverse transcriptase sequences. EMBO J 9:3353–3362Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nuria Anava
    • 1
  • M. Isabel G. Roncero
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Genética, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de CórdobaCórdobaSpain

Personalised recommendations