Delayed appearance of blood lactate with reduced frequency breathing during exercise

  • Y. Yamamoto
  • Y. Takei
  • Y. Mutoh
  • M. Miyashita


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the blood lactate (LA) responses to hypoventilation induced by reduced frequency breathing (RFB) during recovery from exercise. Five male subject performed 16 4 min cycling bouts alternating with 16 min rest periods. Exercise intensities were chosen at power outputs corresponding to 30% \(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{{\text{2 max}}} } \) at 2mMLA, \(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) at 4 mMLA, and 90% \(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{{\text{2 max}}} } \) in each subject. Breathing frequency was voluntarily controlled starting 10 s before each 3rd min of exercise and maintained throughout the rest of the exercise period. Four different breathing patterns at each exercise intensity were used: normal breathing (NB), breathing every 4 s, breathing every 8 s, and maximal RFB. Except for the NB trials, subjects held their breath at functional residual capacity during each breathing interval. The concentration difference of LA between the 3rd min sample and the 4th min sample was defined as the lactate change during exercise (Δ LAex), and that between the 4th min sample and the sample at the 3rd min after the end of the exercise as the lactate change during recovery (Δ LArec). An ANOVA showed significant (p<0.05) differences in breathing procedures only in ΔLArec. ΔLArec seemed to increase as compared to NB only at \(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) at 4 mMLA and 90% \(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{{\text{2 max}}} } \), while ΔLAex remained unchanged as compared to NB in spite of reduced ∵VA. These results might indicate that RFB inhibited lactate removal from working muscles during exercise.

Key words

Reduced frequency breathing Hypoventilation Lactate removal Human 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams RP, Welch HG (1980) Oxygen uptake, acid-base status, and performance with varied inspired oxygen fractions. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise Physiol 49:863–868Google Scholar
  2. Counsilman JE (1977) Competitive Swimming Manual for coaches and swimmers. Counsilman Co Inc, IndianaGoogle Scholar
  3. Craig AB, Jr (1979) Fallacies of “Hypoxic training” in swimming. In: Terauds J, Bedingfield EW (eds) Swimming III. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 235–239Google Scholar
  4. Craig DB, Wahba HF, Don HF, Couture JG, Becklade MR (1971) “Closing volume” and its relationship to gas exchange in seated and supine positions. J Appl Physiol 31:717–721Google Scholar
  5. Dicker SG, Lofthus GK, Thornton NW, Brooks GA (1980) Respiratory and heart rate responses to tethered controlled frequency breathing swimming. Med Sci Sports Exerc 12:20–23Google Scholar
  6. Ehrsam RE, Heigenhauser GJF, Jones NL (1982) Effect of respiratory acidosis on metabolism in exercise. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise Physiol 53:63–69Google Scholar
  7. Findley LJ, Ries AL, Tisi GM, Wagner PD (1983) Hypoxemia during apnea in normal subjects: mechanisms and impact of lung volume. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise Physiol 55:1777–1783Google Scholar
  8. Forster HV, Dempsey JA, Thomson J, Vidruk E, Dopico GA (1972) Estimation of arterial PO2, PCO2, pH, and lactate from arterialized venous blood. J Appl Physiol 32:134–137Google Scholar
  9. Graham T, Wilson BA, Sample M, Van Dijk J, Bonen A (1980) The effects of hypercapnia on metabolic responses to progressive exhaustive work. Med Sci Sports Exerc 12:278–284Google Scholar
  10. Graham TE, Wilson BA, Sample M, Van Dijk J, Goslin B (1982) The effects of hypercapnia on the metabolic response to steady-state exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14:286–291Google Scholar
  11. Graham TE, Barclay JK, Wilson BA (1986) Skeletal muscle lactate release and glycolytic intermediates during hypercapnia. J Appl Physiol 60:568–575Google Scholar
  12. Hirche HJ, Hombach V, Langohr HD, Wacker U, Busse J (1975) Lactic acid permeation rate in working gastreocnemii of dogs during metabolic alkalosis and acidosis. Pflugers Arch 356:209–222Google Scholar
  13. Hogan MC, Cox RH, Wilch HG (1983) Lactate accumulation durin incremental exercise with varied inspired oxygen fractions. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise Physiol 55:1134–1140Google Scholar
  14. Holmer I, Gullstrand L (1980) Physiological responses to swimming with a controlled frequency of breathing. Scand J Sports Sci 2:1–6Google Scholar
  15. Hsieh SS, Hermiston RT (1982) The acute effects of controlled breathing swimming on glycolytic parameters. Can J Appl Sports Sci 8:149–154Google Scholar
  16. Jones NL, Campbell EJM (1982) Clinical exercise testing, (2nd ed.). WB. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  17. Kloche FJ, Rahn H (1965) Breath holding after breathing of oxygen. J Appl Physiol 20:763–766Google Scholar
  18. Lanphier EH, Rahn H (1963) Alveolar gas exchange during breath holding with air. J Appl Physiol 18:478–482Google Scholar
  19. Mainwood GW, Worsley-Brown P (1975) The effects of extracellular pH and buffer concentration on the efflux of lactate from frog sartorius muscle. J Physiol 250:1–22Google Scholar
  20. Mithoefer JC (1959a) Lung volume restriction as a ventilatory stimulus during breath holding. J Appl Physiol 14:701–705Google Scholar
  21. Mithoefer J (1959b) Mechanism of pulmonary gas exchange and CO2 transport during breath holding. J Appl Physiol 14:706–710Google Scholar
  22. Mithoefer JC (1965) Breath holding. In: Fenn WO, Rahn H (eds) Handbook of physiology, section 3, respiration, vol 2. Am Physiol Soc, Washington DC, pp 1101–1125Google Scholar
  23. Seo Y (1984) Effects of extracellular pH on lactate efflux from frog sartorius muscle. Am J Physiol [Cell Physiol 16] 247:C175-C181Google Scholar
  24. Weenig CS, Pietak S, Hickey RF, Fairley HB (1974) Relationship of preoperative closing volume to functional residual capacity and alveolar-arterial oxygen difference during anestesia with controlled ventilation. Anesthesiology 41: 3–7Google Scholar
  25. Yamamoto Y, Takei Y, Mokushi K, Morita H, Mutoh Y, Miyashita M (1987a) Breath-by-breath measurement of alveolar gas exchange with a slow-response gas analyser. Med Biol Eng Comput 25:141–146Google Scholar
  26. Yamamoto Y, Mutoh Y, Kobayashi H, Miyashita M (1987b) Effects of reduced frequency breathing on arterial hypoxemia during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 56:522–527Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Yamamoto
    • 1
  • Y. Takei
    • 1
  • Y. Mutoh
    • 1
  • M. Miyashita
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics, Faculty of EducationUniversity of TokyoBunkyo-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations