Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 281, Issue 3, pp 445–464 | Cite as

The distribution and co-localization of immunoreactivity to nitric oxide synthase, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and substance P within nerve fibres supplying bovine and porcine female genital organs

  • Mariusz Majewski
  • Waldemar Sienkiewicz
  • Jerzy Kaleczyc
  • Bernd Mayer
  • Krzysztof Czaja
  • Miroslaw Lakomy


The distribution of nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive (NOS-IR) axons and their relationship to structures immunoreactive to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P (SP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were studied by means of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) technique or double-labelling immunofluorescence in the genital organs of cow and pig. Relevant neurons were also investigated in the pig. NOS-containing neural structures were TH-immunonegative in bovine or porcine genital organs, or in the studied ganglia. In the bovine ovary, NOS-IR nerves were neither VIP-IR nor SP-IR, whereas in the pig, most NOS-containing axons were also VIP-IR. The oviduct was supplied by single NOS/VIP- or NOS/SP-containing nerves, whereas in the uterus, NOS-IR axons were moderate in number, often being immunoreactive for VIP or SP. Numerous NOS/VIP-IR and NOS/SP-IR nerves were found in the vagina of both species. In all tissues studied, NOS-IR axons were mainly related to vascular smooth muscle. Most of the neurons of the paracervical ganglia and some neurons in dorsal root ganglia exhibited strong NOS activity. Only single neurons in sympathetic ganglia were NADPH-d-positive. Most nitrergic neurons in the autonomic ganglia were VIP-IR but SP-immunonegative. The sensory neurons were mostly NOS/SP-IR, whereas only single neurons co-expressed NOS and VIP immunoreactivity.

Key words

Female genital tract Innervation NADPH-diaphorase Nitric oxide Nitric oxide synthase Pig Cow 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariusz Majewski
    • 1
  • Waldemar Sienkiewicz
    • 1
  • Jerzy Kaleczyc
    • 1
  • Bernd Mayer
    • 2
  • Krzysztof Czaja
    • 1
  • Miroslaw Lakomy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal AnatomyAgricultural and Technical University of OlsztynOlsztyn-Kortowo IIPoland
  2. 2.Institute of Pharmacology and ToxicologyKarl-Franzens UniversityGrazAustria

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