Advertisement

Reizstärkenabhängigkeit und Stevenssche Potenzfunktion beim optisch evozierten Potential des Menschen

  • V. v. Loewenich
  • P. Finkenzeller
Article

Zusammenfassung

Die Reizstärkenabhängigkeit der Amplitude einer späten oberflächenpositiven Komponente („P 1“; Spitzenlatenz je nach Reizstärke zwischen 190 und 300 ms) im gemittelten optisch evozierten Potential des Menschen gehorcht einer Potenzfunktion mit dem Exponenten 0,21. Eine Potenzfunktion mit gleichem Exponenten hatte Stevens bei subjektiven Leuchtdichtenbeurteilungen mittels seiner Dynamometermethode im psychophysischen Versuch gefunden. Es wird daher angenommen, daß in der Amplitude der beschriebenen Welle eine analoge Verschlüsselung der Information über die Leuchtdichte zu suchen ist. Die Verwendung verschiedener farbiger Lichter ergab keine signifikant verschiedenen Exponenten der Reizstärken-Amplituden-Beziehung. Auf Parallelitäten zwischen den vorliegenden Ergebnissen und den Resultaten entsprechender Untersuchungen anderer Sinnesmodalitäten wird hingewiesen.

Summary

The correlation between the intensity of light-stimulus and the amplitude of averaged human visual responses is studied. From measurements of a late surface-positive wave (“P 1”; peak latency between 190 and 300 ms according to stimulus intensity) a power function with an exponent of 0.21 can be derived. A similar function with the same exponent was found by Stevens in psychological experiments: his subjects had to estimate the brightness of light-signals and to report their estimations by squeezing a dynamometer. It might be suggested that the amplitude of wave “P 1” relates to an analogical coding of the information about stimulus intensity. Differences between some exponents obtained by using colored lights are irrelevant. Parallels between these results and those from other studies of different sensory modalities are drawn.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. [1]
    Adrian, E. D.: Rod and cone components in the electric response of the eye. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 105, 24–37 (1946).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Bartlett, N. R., and C. T. White: Evoked potentials and correlated judgements of brightness as functions of interflash intervals. Science 148, 980–981 (1965).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Berger, G. O.: Über den Einfluß der Reizstärke auf die Dauer einfacher psychischer Vorgänge mit besonderer Rücksicht auf Lichtreize. Phil. Stud. 3, 38–93 (1886).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Bickford, R. G., J. L. Jacobson, and D. Th. R. Cody: Nature of average evoked potentials to sound and other stimuli in man. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 204–223 (1964).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Cattell, J. McK.: The influence of the intensity of the stimulus on the length of the reaction time. Brain 8, 512–515 (1886).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Chalke, F. C. R., and J. Ertl: Evoked potentials and intelligence. Life Sci. 4, 1319–1322 (1965).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Čigánek, L.: The EEG-Response (Evoked potential) to light stimulus in man. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 13, 165–172 (1961).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Clynes, M.: Brain space analysis of evoked potential components applied to chromaticity waves. Vortrag 6th Intern. Conf. Med. Electron. Biol. Engin., Tokyo 1965.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    -- The electrical waves in the brain in color vision and their relation to the basic biologic function of unidirectional rate sensitivity. Vortrag 23rd Intern. Congr. Physiol. Scienc., Tokyo 1965.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    --, and M. Kohn: The information code of light intensity evoked brain potentials and unidirectional rate sensitivity. Vortrag 16th ann. Conf. Engin. Med. Biol., Baltimore (Maryld.) 1963).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    -- -- Specific responses of the brain to color stimuli. Proc. 1964 17th ann. Conf. Engin. Med. Biol., Cleveland (Ohio).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    —— —— and K. Lifshitz: Dynamics and spatial behavior of light evoked potentials, their modification under hypnosis, and on-line correlation in relation to rhythmic components. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 468–509 (1964).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    —— —— and D. Litchfield: Chromaticity waves of evoked human brain potentials in normal and color blind vision. Fed. Proc. 24, 274 (1965).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Cohn, R.: Rhythmic after-activity in visual evoked responses. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 281–291 (1964).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Commichau, R.: Adaptationszustand und Unterschieds-Schwellenenergie für Lichtblitze. Z. Biol. 108, 145–160 (1956).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Diamond, S. P.: Input-output relations. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 160–171 (1964).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Efron, R.: Artificial synthesis of evoked responses to light flash. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 292–304 (1964).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Ehrenberger, K., P. Finkenzeller, W. D. Keidel u. K. H. Plattig: Elektrophysiologische Korrelation der Stevensschen Potenzfunktion und objektive Schwellenmessung am Vibrationssinn des Menschen. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 290, 114–123 (1966).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Ekman, G.: Some aspects of psychophysical research. In: Sensory communication, pp. 35–47. Ed. by W. A. Rosenblith. New York, London: M.I.T.-Press and John Wiley & Sons Inc. 1961.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    ——, and T. Künnapas: Brightness scales for monochromatic light. Scand. J. Psychol. 1, 41–48 (1960).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Froeberg, S.: The relation between the magnitude of stimulus and the time of reaction. Arch. Psychol. (N. Y.) 8 (1907).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Gaarder, K., J. Krauskopf, V. Graf, W. Kropfl, and J. C. Armington: Averaged brain activity following saccadic eye movements. Science 146, 1481–1483 (1964).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Haider, M., P. Spong, and D. B. Lindsley: Attention, vigilance, and cortical evoked potentials in humans. Science 145, 180–182 (1964).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Hanes, R. M.: A scale of subjective brightness. J. exp. Psychol. 39, 438–452 (1949).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Keidel, W. D.: On the neurophysiological exponents of Stevens' power functions electronically computed in man. Vortrag 6th Intern. Conf. Med. Electron. Biol. Engin., Tokyo 1965.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    -- K. Ehrenberger, P. Finkenzeller u. K. H. Plattig: Objektive Schwellenmessung am Vibrationssinn. Vortrag Arbeitstagung Arbeitsgem. dtsch. Audiologen, Erlangen 1965.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    -- V. v. Loewenich u. P. Finkenzeller: Corticale Antworten auf optische Reizung beim Menschen. Vortrag Arbeitstagung Arbeitsgem. dtsch. Audiologen, Erlangen 1965.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    ——, u. M. Spreng: Elektronisch gemittelte langsame Rindenpotentiale des Menschen bei akustischer Reizung. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) 56, 318–328 (1963).Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    —— —— Computed audio-encephalograms in man (a technique of “objective” Audiometry). Intern. Audiology — Audiol. internationale IV, 56–60 (1965).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    -- -- Objektive Audiometrie. Vortrag Arbeitstagung Arbeitsgem. dtsch. Audiologen, Erlangen 1965.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    —— —— Audiometric aspects and multisensory power-functions of electrically averaged slow evoked cortical responses in man. Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.) 59, 201–208 (1965).Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    —— —— Neurophysiological evidence for the Stevens power function in man. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 38, 191–195 (1965).Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Kitasato, H., and T. Hatsuda: The degree of contamination of averaged response with alpha waves and alpha-like waves evoked by photic stimulation. Jap. J. Physiol. 15, 492–504 (1965).Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Kooi, K. A., and B. K. Bagchi: Observations on early components of the visual evoked response and occipital rhythms. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol. 17, 638–643 (1964).Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    —— —— Visual evoked responses in man: Normative data. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 254–269 (1964).Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Loewenich, V. v.: Leuchtdichtenabhängigkeit der menschlichen corticalen Reizantworten ohne und mit Einfluß der Adaptation. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 289, R 29 (1966).Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Piéron, H.: Recherches sur les lois de variation des temps de latence sensorielle en fonction des intensités excitatrices. Ann. psychol. 20, 17–96 (1914).Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Potts, A. M., and T. Nagaya: Studies on the visual evoked response. Invest. Ophthal. 4, 303 (1965).Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Rémond, A.: Level of organization of evoked responses in man. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 143–159 (1964).Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    -- Gaze and vision. Vortrag 6th Intern. Conf. Med. Electron. Biol. Engin., Tokyo 1965.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Rietveld, W. J.: The occipitocortical response to lightflashes in man. Acta physiol. pharmacol. neerl. 12, 373–407 (1963).Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Rietveld, W. J., and W. E. M. Tordoir: The influence of flash intensity upon the visual evoked response in the human cortex. Acta physiol. pharmacol. neerl. 13, 160–170 (1965).Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    ——, and J. W. Duyff: Contribution of fovea and parafovea to the visual evoked response. Acta physiol. pharmacol. neerl. 13, 330–339 (1965).Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    —— ——, and K. J. van Dongen: Contributions of foveaparafovea quadrants to the visual evoked response. Acta physiol. pharmacol. neerl. 13, 340–347 (1965).Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Schwartz, M., and Ch. Shagass: Recovery functions of human somatosensory and visual evoked potentials. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 112, 510–525 (1964).Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Shipley, T., R. W. Jones, and A. Fry: Evoked visual potentials and human color vision. Science 150, 1162 (1965).Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Siegfried, J. B., D. I. Tepas, H. G. Sperling, and R. H. Hiss: Evoked brain potential correlates of psychophysical responses: Heterochromatic flicker photometry. Science 149, 321–323 (1965).Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Spong, P., M. Haider, and D. B. Lindsley: Selective attentiveness and cortical evoked responses to visual and auditory stimuli. Science 148, 395–397 (1965).Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    Spreng, M., u. M. Ichioka: Langsame Rindenpotentiale bei Schmerzreizung am Menschen. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 279, 121–132 (1964).Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    --, and W. D. Keidel: Human evoked cortical responses to auditory stimuli: Interaction, time course of adaptation, influence of stimuli parameters. Proc. 22nd Congr. Physiol. Scienc. 1010, Leiden 1962.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    —— —— Neue Möglichkeiten der Untersuchung menschlicher Informationsverarbeitung. Kybernetik 1, 243–249 (1963).Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    Stevens, S. S.: Decibels of light and sound. Physics Today 8, 12–17 (1955).Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    —— The psychophysics of sensory function. In: Sensory communication, pp. 1–33. Ed. by W. A. Rosenblith. New York, London: M.I.T.-Press and John Wiley & Sons Inc. 1961.Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Stevens, J. C., J. D. Mack, and S. S. Stevens: Growth of sensation on seven continua as measured by force of handgrip. J. exp. Psychol. 59, 60–67 (1960).Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    Straumanis, J. J., Ch. Shagass, and M. Schwartz: Visually evoked cerebral response changes associated with chronic brain syndromes and aging. J. Geront. 20, 498–506 (1965).Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    Thrane, V. C.: Sensory and preparatory factors in response latency: I. The visual intensity-function. Scand. J. Psychol. 1, 82–96 (1960).Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    Vaughan, H. G., jun., and R. C. Hull: Functional relation between stimulus intensity and photically evoked cerebral responses in man. Nature (Lond.) 206, 720–722 (1965).Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    Wicke, J. D., E. Donchin, and D. B. Lindsley: Visual evoked potentials as a function of flash luminance and duration. Science 146, 83–85 (1964).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. v. Loewenich
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Finkenzeller
    • 1
  1. 1.I. Physiologisches Institut der Universität Erlangen-NürnbergGermany
  2. 2.Universitäts-Kinderklinik6 Frankfurt a. M. 70

Personalised recommendations