Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 133, Issue 3, pp 195–201

Fermentation of trihydroxybenzenes by Pelobacter acidigallici gen. nov. sp. nov., a new strictly anaerobic, non-sporeforming bacterium

  • Bernhard Schink
  • Norbert Pfennig
Original Papers

Abstract

Five strains of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-sporing, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated from limnic and marine mud samples with gallic acid or phloroglucinol as sole substrate. All strains grew in defined mineral media without any growth factors; marine isolates required salt concentrations higher than 1% for growth, two freshwater strains only thrived in freshwater medium. Gallic acid, pyrogallol, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid, and phloroglucinol were the only substrates utilized and were fermented stoichiometrically to 3 mol acetate (and 1 mol CO2) per mol with a growth yield of 10g cell dry weight per mol of substrate. Neither sulfate, sulfur, nor nitrate were reduced. The DNA base ratio was 51.8% guanine plus cytosine. A marine isolate, Ma Gal 2, is described as type strain of a new genus and species, Pelobacter acidigallici gen. nov. sp. nov., in the family Bacteroidaceae. In coculture with Acetobacterium woodii, the new isolates converted also syringic acid completely to acetate. Cocultures with Methanosarcina barkeri converted the respective substrates completely to methane and carbon dioxide.

Key words

Pelobacter acidigallici gen. nov. sp. nov. Genus and species description Phenolic compounds Gallic acid Pyrogallol Phloroglucin Anaerobic degradation Acetate Methanogenic cultures 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Public Health Association Inc. (Ed) (1969) In: Standard methods for the examination of water and waste-water including bottom sediments and sludge. New York pp 604–609Google Scholar
  2. Bache R, Pfennig N (1981) Selective isolation of Acetobacterium woodii on methoxylated aromatic acids and determination of growth yields. Arch Microbiol 130:255–261Google Scholar
  3. Bergmeyer HU (1965) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Verlag Chemie Weinheim, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  4. Buchanan RE, Gibbons NE (1974) Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th ed Williams and Wilkins Co, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  5. Dagley S (1975) A biochemical approach to some problems of environmental pollution. Essays in Biochemistry 11:81–138Google Scholar
  6. De Ley J (1970) Reexamination of the association between melting point, buoyant density and the chemical base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid. J Bacteriol 101:738–754Google Scholar
  7. Donnelly MJ, Chapman PJ, Dagley S (1981) Bacterial degradation of 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetic and 3-ketoglutaric acids. J Bacteriol 147:477–481Google Scholar
  8. Duncan CL, Strong DH (1968) Improved medium for sporulation of Clostridium perfringens. Appl Microbiol 16:82–89Google Scholar
  9. Dutton PL, Evans WC (1969) The metabolism of aromatic compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris Biochem J 113:525–536Google Scholar
  10. Evans WC (1977) Biochemistry of the bacterial catabolism of aromatic compounds in anaerobic environments. Nature (London) 270:17–22Google Scholar
  11. Ferry JG, Wolfe RS (1976) Anaerobic degradation of benzoate to methane by a microbial consortium. Arch Microbiol 107:33–40Google Scholar
  12. Fina LR, Bridges RL, Coblentz TH, Roberts FF (1978) The anaerobic decomposition of benzoic acid during methane formation. III. The fate of carbon four and the identification of propanoic acid. Arch Microbiol 118:169–172Google Scholar
  13. Groseclose EE, Ribbons DW (1981) Metabolism of resorcinylic compounds by bacteria: new pathway for resorcinol catabolism in Azotobacter vinelandii. J Bacteriol 146:460–466Google Scholar
  14. Guyer M, Hegeman G (1969) Evidence for a reductive pathway for the anaerobic metabolism of benzoate. J Bacteriol 99:906–907Google Scholar
  15. Healy JB Jr, Young LY (1978) Catechol and phenol degradation by a methanogenic population of bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 35:216–218Google Scholar
  16. Healy JB, Young LY (1979) Anaerobic biodegradation of eleven aromatic compounds to methane. Appl environ Microbiol 38:84–89Google Scholar
  17. Healy JB, Young LY, Reinhard M (1980) Methanogenic decomposition of ferulic acid, a model lignin derivative. Appl Environ Microbiol 39:436–444Google Scholar
  18. Hollaus F, Sleytr U (1972) On the taxonomy and fine structure of some hyperthermophilic saccharolytic clostridia Arch Mikrobiol 86:129–146Google Scholar
  19. Keith CL, Bridges RL, Fina LR, Iverson KL, Cloran JA (1978) The anaerobic decomposition of benzoic acid during methane formation. IV. Dearomatization of the ring and volatile fatty acids formed on ring rupture. Arch Microbiol 118:173–176Google Scholar
  20. Magee CM, Rodeheaver G, Edgerton MT, Edlich RF (1975) A more reliable gram staining technic for diaguosis of surgical infections. Am J Surg 130:341–346Google Scholar
  21. Marmur J (1961) A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from microorganisms. J Mol Biol 3:208–218Google Scholar
  22. Ornston LN, Stanier RY (1966) The conversion of catechol and protocatechuate to β-ketoadipate by Pseudomonas putida. J Biol Chem 241:3776–3786Google Scholar
  23. Pachmayr F (1960) Vorkommen und Bestimmung von Schwefelverbindungen in Mineralwasser. Thesis Univ MünchenGoogle Scholar
  24. Patel TR, Jure KG, Jones GA (1981) Catabolism of phloroglucinol by the rumen anaerobe Coprococcus. Appl Environ Microbiol 42:1010–1017Google Scholar
  25. Pfennig N (1978) Rhodocyclus purpureus gen. nov. and sp. nov., a ring-shaped, vitamin B12-requiring member of the family Rhodospirillaceae. Int J Syst Bacteriol 28:283–288Google Scholar
  26. Pfennig N, Eimhjellen KE, Liaaen-Jensen S (1965) A new isolate of the Rhodospirillum fulvum group and its photosynthetic pigments. Arch Mikrobiol 51:258–266Google Scholar
  27. Pridham JB (1965) Low molecular weigh phenols in higher plants. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 16:13–36Google Scholar
  28. Simpson FY, Jones GA, Wolin EA (1969) Anaerobic degradation of some bioflavonoids by microflora of the rumen. Can J Microbiol 15:972–974Google Scholar
  29. Stouthamer AH (1979) The search for correlation between theoretical and experimental growth yields. In: International review of biochemistry, microbial biochemistry, Vol 21, JR Quayle (ed) University Park Press Baltimore, pp 1–47Google Scholar
  30. Tarvin D, Buswell AM (1934) The methane formation of organic acids and carbohydrates. J Am Chem Soc 56:1751–1755Google Scholar
  31. Taylor BF, Heeb MJ (1972) The anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds by a denitrifying bacterium. Arch Mikrobiol 83:165–171Google Scholar
  32. Tsai CG, Gates DM, Ingledew WM, Jones GA (1976) Products of anaerobic phloroglucinol degradation by Coprococcus sp. Pe15. Can J Microbiol 22: 159–164Google Scholar
  33. Tsai CG, Jones GA (1975) Isolation and identification of rumen bacteria capable of anaerobic phloroglucinol degradation. Can J Microbiol 21:794–801Google Scholar
  34. Whittle PJ, Lunt DO, Evans WC (1976) Anaerobic photometabolism of aromatic compounds by Rhodopseudomonas sp. Biochem Soc Trans 4:490–491Google Scholar
  35. Widdel F (1980) Anaerober Abbau von Fettsäuren und Benzoesäure durch neu isolierte Arten Sulfat-reduzierender Bakterien. Thesis, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  36. Widdel F, Pfennig N (1981) Studies on dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria that decompose fatty acids. I. Isolation of new sulfatereducing bacteria enriched with acetate from saline environments. Description of Desulfobacter postgatei gen. nov., sp. nov. Arch Microbiol 129:295–400Google Scholar
  37. Williams RJ, Evans WC (1975) The metabolism of benzoate by Moraxella species through anaerobic nitrate respiration. Evidence for a reductive pathway. Biochem J 148:1–10Google Scholar
  38. Zeikus JG (1980) Fate of lignin and related aromatics in anaerobic environments. In: Lignin biodegradation: Microbiology, chemistry and potential applications Kirk T, Higushi T, Chung HM (eds) CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 101–110Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernhard Schink
    • 1
  • Norbert Pfennig
    • 1
  1. 1.Fakultät für BiologieUniversität KonstanzKonstanzFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations