Cross tolerance between mescaline and LSD-25 with a comparison of the mescaline and LSD reactions
- 114 Downloads
The reactions caused by intramuscular administration of 0.75 mcg/ kg and 1.5 meg/kg of LSD-25 have been compared in the same 10 subjects with those induced by 2.5 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg of mescaline.
Both LSD and mescaline caused dilatation of the pupils, increase in body temperature, elevation of pulse rate and increase in systolic blood pressure. Both drugs decreased the threshold for elicitation of the kneejerk.
After both drugs, similar abnormal mental states characterized by anxiety, difficulty in thinking, alteration in mood (generally euphoric), altered sensory perception (particularly visual), elementary and true visual hallucinations and alterations of body image were reported by the subjects.
The effects of mescaline appeared more slowly and persisted somewhat longer than did the effects of LSD.
LSD tartrate is 2400–4900 times as potent as mescaline hydrochloride. On a molecular basis, LSD is 4500 to 9275 times as potent as mescaline.
Patients receiving LSD daily developed direct tolerance to LSD; such patients were also cross tolerant to mescaline. Likewise patients receiving mescaline daily became tolerant to mescaline and cross tolerant to LSD.
It was inferred that LSD, psilocybin and mescaline probably share common mechanisms of action or some common final pathway.
KeywordsSystolic Blood Pressure Hydrochloride Mental State Body Image Pulse Rate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Abramson, H. A., M. E. Jarvik, M. R. Kaufman, C. Kornetsky, A. Levine and M. Wagner: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25). I. Physiological and perceptual responses. J. Psychol. (Provincetown) 39, 3–60 (1955).Google Scholar
- Balestrieri, A.: Crossed tolerance between LSD-25 and mescaline, p. 581 in Psychotropic Drugs, ed. by S. Garattini and V. Ghetti. Amsterdam-London-New York-Princeton: Elsevier Publ. Co. 1957.Google Scholar
- —: Some aspects of the sensitivity to hallucinogenic drugs, p. 44–47, Neuro-psychopharmacology. Proc. of 2nd Meet., Collegium Internat. Neuropsycho-pharmacologicum, vol. 2, edit. by E. Rothlin. Amsterdam-London-New York-Princeton. Elsevier Publ. Co. 1960.Google Scholar
- —, and D. Fontanari: Acquired and crossed tolerance to mescaline, LSD-25 and BOL-148. A.M.A. Arch. gen. Psychiat. 1, 279–282 (1959).Google Scholar
- Beringer, K.: La intoxicacion por la mescalina. Arch. argent. Neurol. 2, 145–154 (1928).Google Scholar
- Buchanan, D. N.: Meskalinrausch. Brit. J. med. Psychol. 9, 67–88 (1929).Google Scholar
- Edwards, A. L.: Statistical analysis for students in psychology and education. New York: Rhinehart & Co. 1946.Google Scholar
- Freedman, D. X., G. K. Aghajanian, E. M. Ornitz and B. S. Rosner: Patterns of tolerance to lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline in rats. Science 127, 1173–1174 (1958).Google Scholar
- Gaddum, J. H.: Bioassays and mathematics. Pharmacol. Rev. 5, 87–134 (1953).Google Scholar
- Guttmann, E., and W. S. MacLay: Mescaline and depersonalization. J. Neurol. Psychopath. 16, 193–212 (1936).Google Scholar
- Hoch, P. H., J. P. Cattell and H. H. Pennes: Effects of mescaline and lysergic acid (d-LSD-25). Amer. J. Psychiat. 108, 579–584 (1952).Google Scholar
- Isbell, H.: Comparison of the reactions induced by psilocybin and LSD in man. Psychopharmacologia 1, 29–38 (1959).Google Scholar
- —, R. E. Belleville, H. F. Fraser, A. Wikler and C. R. Logan: Studies on lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25). I. Effects in former morphine addicts and development of tolerance during chronic intoxication. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chicago) 76, 468–478 (1956).Google Scholar
- —, A. B. Wolbach, A. Wikler and E. J. Miner: Cross tolerance between LSD and psilocybin. Psychopharmacologia 2, 147–159 (1961).Google Scholar
- Mayer-Gross, W.: Experimental psychoses and other mental abnormalities produced by drugs. Brit. med. J. 1951 II, 317–321.Google Scholar
- Rinkel, M., H. J. DeShon, R. W. Hyde and H. C. Solomon: Experimental schizophrenia-like symptoms. Amer. J. Psychiat. 108, 572–577 (1952).Google Scholar
- Spector, E.: Identification of 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetic acid as the major metabolite of mescaline in the dog. Nature (Lond.) 189, 751–752 (1961).Google Scholar
- Stockings, G. T.: A clinical study of the mescaline psychosis with special reference to the mechanism of the genesis of schizophrenic and other psychotic states. J. ment. Sci. 86, 29–47 (1940).Google Scholar
- Stoll, W. A.: Lysergsäure-diäthylamid, ein Phantasticum aus der Mutterkorngruppe. Schweiz. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 60, 279–324 (1947).Google Scholar
- Wilcoxon, F.: Some rapid approximate statistical procedures. ew York: American Cyanamid Comp. 1949.Google Scholar
- Winter, C. A., and L. Flataker: Studies on heptazone (6-morpholino-4,4-di-phenyl-3-heptanone hydrochloride) in comparison with other analgesic drugs. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 98, 305–317 (1950).Google Scholar
- Woods, L. A., J. Cochin, E. J. Fornefeld, F. G. McMahon and M. H. Seevers: The estimation of amines in biological materials with critical data for cocaine and mescaline. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 101, 188–199 (1951).Google Scholar