Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 599–604 | Cite as

Gender and ethical orientation: A test of gender and occupational socialization theories

  • E. Sharon Mason
  • Peter E. Mudrack
Article

Abstract

Ethics and associated values influence not only managerial behavior but also managerial success (England and Lee, 1973). Gender socialization theory hypothesizes gender differences in ethics variables whether or not individuals are full time employees; occupational socialization hypothesizes gender similarity in employees. The conflicting hypotheses were investigated using questionnaire responses from a sample of 308 individuals. Analysis of variance and hierarchical regression yielded unexpected results. Although no significant gender differences emerged in individuals lacking full time employment, significant differences existed between employed women and men, with women appearing “more ethical”. While occupational socialization predicts an interaction between employment status and gender, these group differences were opposite to those predicted. An implication for the two theories and the current conflicting research support is that these commonly used theories may be of limited usefulness. Some alternative concepts are proposed.

Keywords

Gender Difference Full Time Socialization Theory Managerial Behavior Significant Gender Difference 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beutell, N. and O. C. Brenner: 1986, ‘Sex Differences in Work Values’, Journal of Vocational Behavior 28, 29–41.Google Scholar
  2. Bussey, K. and B. Maughan: 1982, ‘Gender Differences in Moral Reasoning’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42, 701–706.Google Scholar
  3. Carroll, A. B.: 1978, ‘Linking Business Ethics to Behavior in Organizations’, SAM Advanced Management Journal 43, 4–11.Google Scholar
  4. Eagly, A. H.: 1987, Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Social-Role Interpretation (Erlbaum, New Jersey).Google Scholar
  5. England, G. W. and R. Lee: 1973, ‘The Relationship Between Managerial Values and Managerial Success in the United States, Japan, India, and Australia’, Journal of Applied Psychology 74, 411–419.Google Scholar
  6. Fiske, E. B.: 1990, ‘Lessons: Even at a Former Women's College, Male Students are Taken More Seriously, a Researcher Finds’, New York Times April 11, Living Arts Sec.Google Scholar
  7. Froelich, K. S. and J. L. Kotte: 1991, ‘Measuring Individual Beliefs About Organizational Ethics’, Educational and Psychological Measurement 51, 377–383.Google Scholar
  8. Gilligan, C.: 1982, In a Different Voice (Harvard University Press, Cambridge).Google Scholar
  9. Gomez-Mejia, L.: 1983, ‘Sex Differences During Occupational Socialization’, Academy of Management Review 26, 492–499.Google Scholar
  10. Gutek, B. A.: 1988, ‘Sex Segregation and Women at Work: A Selective Review’, Applied Psychology: An International Review 37, 103–120.Google Scholar
  11. Harris, J.: 1990, ‘Ethical Values of Individuals at Different Levels in the Organizational Hierarchy of a Single Firm’, Journal of Business Ethics 9, 741–750.Google Scholar
  12. Heim, P. and S. K. Golant: 1993, Hardball for Women: Winning at the Game of Business (NAL/Dutton, New York).Google Scholar
  13. Kanter, R. M.: 1977, Men and Women of the Corporation (Basic Books, New York).Google Scholar
  14. Lacy, W., J. Bokemeir and J. Shepard: 1983, ‘Job Attribute Preferences and Work Commitment of Men and Women in the United States’, Personnel Psychology 36, 315–329.Google Scholar
  15. Lincoln, D. J., M. M. Pressley, and T. Little: 1982, ‘Ethical Beliefs and Personal Values of Top Level Executives’, Journal of Business Research 10, 475–487.Google Scholar
  16. Manhardt, P.: 1972, ‘Job Orientation of Male and Female College Graduates in Business’, Personnel Psychology 25, 361–368.Google Scholar
  17. Posner, B. and J. M. Munson: 1981, ‘Gender Differences in Managerial Values’, Psychological Reports 49, 867–881.Google Scholar
  18. Ruegger, D. and E. King: 1992, ‘A Study of the Effect of Age and Gender upon Student Business Ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics 11, 179–186.Google Scholar
  19. Walker, J., C. Tausky, and D. Oliver: 1982, ‘Men and Women at Work: Similarities and Differences in Work Values within Occupational Groupings’, Journal of Vocational Behavior 21, 17–36.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Sharon Mason
    • 1
  • Peter E. Mudrack
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of BusinessBrock UniversityCanada

Personalised recommendations