The methods of non-equilibrium thermodynamics are applied to isothermal membrane processes, in particular to separation effects induced by counter-osmotic flow. A conveniently defined measure for the separation has been expressed, using the Onsager relation, in terms of only two characteristic parameters, connected to the permeability properties of the membrane. For a number of values of these parameters and of the pressure applied the corresponding separation in a given system has been calculated numerically.
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Groot, S. R. de and P. Mazur, Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics, Amsterdam, 1962.
Staverman, A. J., Rec. Trav. chim. Pays-Bas 70 (1951) 344; Trans. Faraday Soc. 48 (1952) 176.
See also P. Mazur, Thermodynamics symposium in Utrecht (1952), (published in: Chem. Weekblad 50 (1954) 324).
Loc. cit. reference 1, page 416.
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de Groot, S.R., Mazur, P. & Michels, A. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of separation effects through membrane processes. Appl. sci. Res. 15, 261–271 (1966). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00411562
- Characteristic Parameter
- Separation Effect
- Membrane Process
- Permeability Property