Advertisement

Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 131, Issue 4, pp 308–312 | Cite as

Hydrophobic and electrostatic characterization of surface structures of bacteria and its relationship to adhesion to an air-water interface

  • Malte Hermansson
  • Staffan Kjelleberg
  • Timo K. Korhonen
  • Thor-Axel Stenström
Original Papers

Abstract

Hydrophobic and charge-charge interactions of Salmonella typhimirium and Serratia marcescens were determined and related to their content of fimbriae and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cell surface structures were characterized with hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), electrostatic interaction chromatography (ESIC) and particle electrophoresis measurements. The degree of interaction at the air-water interface was tested using a monolayered lipid film applied to an aqueous surface. The cell surface hydrophobicity of S. typhimurium in the presence of fimbriae was less in smooth than in rought bacteria. Examination of a series of rough mutants of S. typhimurium indicates that reduction of the O-side chain and core oligosaccharides was correlated with increased cell hydrophobicity. The enrichment factors at the air-water interface were significantly higher for fimbriated than for non-fimbriated S. typhimurium cells. Fimbriated S. marcescens cells were less hydrophobic and adhered to a lesser degree at the air-water surface than non-fimbriated counterparts. Electrophoretic measurements and adsorption to ion exchangers gives different information about the surface charge of bacteria. The latter technique gives the interaction between localized charged surfaces.

Key words

Hydrophobicity Charge-charge interactions Fimbriae Lipopolysaccharides Air-water interface Bacterial adhesion Salmonella typhimurium Serratia marcescens 

Abbreviations

HIC

hydrophobic interaction chromatography

ESIC

electrostatic interaction chromatography

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

PBS

phosphate buffered saline solution

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blanchard DC, Syzdek LD (1978) Seven problems in bubble and jet drop researches. Limnol Oceanogr 23:389–400Google Scholar
  2. Brinton CC Jr (1971) The properties of sex pili, the viral nature of “conjugal” genetic transfer systems, and some possible approaches to the control of bacterial drug resistance. Crit Rev. Microbiol 1:105–160Google Scholar
  3. Brinton CC Jr, Buzzell A, Lauffer MA (1954) Electrophoresis and phage susceptibility studies on a filament-producing variant of the E. coli B bacterium. Biochim Biophys Acta 15:533–542Google Scholar
  4. Cunningham RK, Söderström TO, Gillman CF, van Oss CJ (1975) Phagocytosis as a surface phenomenon. V. Contact angels and phagocytosis of rough and smooth strains of Salmonella typhimurium, and the influence of specific antiserum. Immunol Commun 4:429–442Google Scholar
  5. Dahlbäck B, Hermansson M, Kjelleberg S, Norkrans B (1981) The hydrophobicity of bacteria — an important factor in their initial adhesion at the air-water interface. Arch Microbiol 128:267–270Google Scholar
  6. Daniels SL, Kempell LL (1966) The separation of bacteria by adsorption onto ion exchange resins. Chem Eng Progr Symp Ser 62:142–148Google Scholar
  7. Duguid JP (1968) The function of bacterial fimbriae. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 16:173–188Google Scholar
  8. Heckels JE, Blackett B, Everson JS, Ward ME (1976) The influence of surface charge on the attachment of Neisseria gonorrhoae to human cells. J Gen Microbiol 96:359–364Google Scholar
  9. Hermansson M, Kjelleberg S, Norkrans B (1979) Interaction of pigmented wildtype and pigmentless mutant of Serratia marcescens with lipid surface film. FEMS Microbiol Lett 6:129–132Google Scholar
  10. Hogg SD (1976) Studies on the interaction of selected Gram-negative bacteria with DEAE-cellulose. Ph D Thesis University of Salford, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  11. Houwink AL, van Iterson W (1950) Electron microscopical observations on bacterial cytology. II. A study on flagellation. Biochim Biophys Acta 5:10–44Google Scholar
  12. Irvin RT, MacAlister TJ, Chan R, Costerton JW (1981a) Citratetris (hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-mediated release of outer membrane sections from the cell envelope of a deep-rough (heptosedeficient lipopolysaccharide) strain of Escherichia coli 08. J Bacteriol 145:1386–1396Google Scholar
  13. Irvin RT, MacAlister TJ, Costerton JW (1981b) Tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane buffer modification of Escherichia coli outer membrane permeability. J Bacteriol 145:1397–1403Google Scholar
  14. James AM, List CF (1966) Some physical investigations of the behavior of bacterial surfaces. XII. The effect of fimbriae on the electrophoretic mobility of some capsular and non-capsular bacteria of the Coli-Aerogenes group. Biochim Biophys Acta 112:307–317Google Scholar
  15. Kihlström E (1980) The effect of lipopolysaccharides on the association of Salmonella typhimurium with HeLa cells. Scand J Infect Dis, Suppl 24:141–143Google Scholar
  16. Kjelleberg S (1980) Microbial interaction at the air-water interface. PhD Thesis, University of Göteborg, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  17. Kjelleberg S, Stenström TA (1980) Lipid surface films: Interaction of bacteria with free fatty acids and phospholipids at the air/water interface. J Gen Microbiol 166:417–423Google Scholar
  18. Kjelleberg S, Stenström TA, Odham G (1979) Comparative study of different hydrophobic devices for sampling lipid surface films and adherent microorganisms. Mar Biol 53:21–25Google Scholar
  19. Kjelleberg S, Lagercrantz C, Larsson Th (1980) Quantitative analysis of bacterial hydrophobicity studied by the binding of dodecanoic acid. FEMS Microbiol Lett 7:41–44Google Scholar
  20. Korhonen TK (1979) Yeast cell agglutination by purified enterobacterial pili. FEMS Microbiol Lett 6:421–425Google Scholar
  21. Korhonen TK (1980) Structure and function of enterobacterial pili. PhD Thesis, University of Helsinki, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  22. Korhonen TK, Lounatmaa K, Ranta H, Kuusi N (1980) Characterization of type 1 pili of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. J Bacteriol 144:800–805Google Scholar
  23. Leben C, Whitmoyer RE (1979) Adherence of bacteria to leaves. Can J Microbiol 25:896–901Google Scholar
  24. Lounatmaa K, Mäkelä PH, Sarvas M (1976) Effect of polymyxin on the ultrastructure of the outer membrane of wild-type and polymyxinresistant strains of Salmonella. J Bacteriol 127:1400–1407Google Scholar
  25. Magnusson K-E, Stendahl O, Tagesson L, Edebo L, Johansson G (1977) The tendency of smooth and rough Salmonella typhimurium bacteria and lipopolysaccharide to hydrophobic and ionic interaction, as studied in aqueous polymers two-phase systems. Acta Path Microbiol Scand Sect B 85:212–218Google Scholar
  26. Magnusson K-E, Kihlström E, Norlander L, Norqvist A, Davies J, Normark S (1979) Effect of colony type and pH on surface charge and hydrophobicity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect Immun 26:397–401Google Scholar
  27. Magnusson K-E, Davies J, Grundström T, Kihlström E, Normark S (1980) Surface charge and hydrophobicity of Salmonella, E. coli, Gonococci in relation to their tendency to associate with animal cells. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 24:135–140Google Scholar
  28. Marshall KC (1972) Mechanisms of adhesion of marine bacteria to surfaces. In: RF Acker, BF Brown, JR DePalma, WP Iverson (eds) Proc third int cong marine corrosion and fouling. Northwestern University Press, Evanston, Ill., pp 625–632Google Scholar
  29. Marszalek DS, Gerchakov SM, Udey LR (1979). Influence of substrate composition on marine microfouling. Appl Environ Microbiol 39:987–995Google Scholar
  30. Mäkelä PH, Stocker BAD (1981) Genetics of the bacterial cell surface. In: SW Glover, DA Hopwood (eds) Soc Gen Microbiol Symp 31. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 219–264Google Scholar
  31. Norkrans B, Sörensson F (1977) On the marine lipid surface microlayer.-Bacterial accumulation in model systems. Bot Mar 20:473–478Google Scholar
  32. Pedersen K (1981) Electrostatic interaction chromatography, a method for assaying the relative surface charges of bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 12:365–367Google Scholar
  33. Rosenberg M, Gutnick D, Rosenberg E (1980) Adherence of bacteria to hydrocarbons: A simple method for measuring cell-surface hydrophobicity. FEMS Microbiol Lett 9:29–33Google Scholar
  34. Shaw DJ (1969) Electrophoresis. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Ward JB, Berkeley RCW (1980) The microbial cell surface and adhesion. In: RCW Berkeley, JM Lynch, J Melling, PR Rutter, B Vincent (eds) Microbial adhesion to surfaces. Ellis Horwood Ltd, Chichester, England, pp 47–66Google Scholar
  36. Wilkinson RG, Gemski P, Stocker BAD (1972) Non-smooth mutants of Salmonella typhimurium: Differentiation by phage sensitivity and genetic mapping. J Gen Microbiol 70:527–554Google Scholar
  37. Wood JM (1980) The interaction of micro-organisms with ion exchange resins. In: RCW Berkeley, JM Lynch, J Melling, PR Rutter, B Vincent (eds) Microbial adhersion to surfaces. Ellis Horwood Ltd, Chichester, England, pp 163–185Google Scholar
  38. Young LY (1978) Bacterioneuston examined with critical point drying and transmission electron microscopy.Microbial Ecology 4:267–277Google Scholar
  39. Zimmermann R, Iturriaga R, Becker-Brick I (1978) Simultaneous determination of the total number of aquatic bacteria and the number thereof involved in respiration. Appl Environ Microbiol 36:926–935Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malte Hermansson
    • 1
  • Staffan Kjelleberg
    • 1
  • Timo K. Korhonen
    • 2
  • Thor-Axel Stenström
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Marine Microbiology, Botanical InstituteUniversity of GöteborgGöteborgSweden
  2. 2.Department of General MicrobiologyUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.National Bacteriological LaboratoryStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations