Fermentation of glutamate and other compounds by Acidaminobacter hydrogenoformans gen. nov. sp. nov., an obligate anaerobe isolated from black mud. Studies with pure cultures and mixed cultures with sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria
- 302 Downloads
From mud from the Ems-Dollard estuary (The Netherlands) an L-glutamate-fermenting bacterium was isolated. The isolated strain glu 65 is Gram-negative, rodshaped, obligately anaerobic, non-sporeforming and does not contain cytochromes. The G+C content of its DNA is 48 mol percent.
Pure cultures of strain glu 65 grew slowly on glutamate (μmax 0.06 h-1) and formed acetate, CO2, formate and hydrogen, and minor amounts of propionate. A more rapid fermentation of glutamate was achieved in mixed cultures with sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio HL21 or Desulfobulbus propionicus) or methanogens (Methanospirillum hungatei or Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus AZ). In mixed culture with Desulfovibrio HL21 a μmax of 0.10 h-1 was observed. With Desulfovibrio or the methanogens propionate was a major product (up to 0.47 mol per mol glutamate) in addition to acetate.
Extracts of glutamate-grown cells possessed high activities of 3-methylaspartase, a key enzyme of the mesaconate pathway leading to acetate, and very high activities of NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, an enzyme most likely involved in the pathway to propionate.
The following other substrates allowed reasonable to good growth in pure culture: histidine, α-ketoglutarate, serine, cysteine, glycine, adenine, pyruvate, oxaloacetate and citrate. Utilization in mixed cultures was demonstrated for: glutamine, arginine, ornithine, threonine, lysine, alanine, valine, leucine and isoleucine (with Desulfovibrio HL21) and malate (with Methanospirillum).
The shift in the fermentation of glutamate and the syntrophic utilization of the above substrates are explained in terms of interspecies hydrogen transfer.
Strain glu 65 is described as the type strain of Acidaminobacter hydrogenoformans gen. nov. sp. nov.
Key wordsAcidaminobacter hydrogenoformans gen. nov. sp. nov. Glutamate degradation Amino acid fermentation Interspecies hydrogen transfer Syntrophic cultures Sulfate reduction
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Barker HA (1981) Amino acid degradation by anaerobic bacteria. Ann Rev Biochem 50:23–40Google Scholar
- Bernt E, Bergmeyer HU (1974) L-Glutamate. In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 1704–1708Google Scholar
- Buckel W, Barker HA (1974) Two pathways of glutamate fermentation by anaerobic bacteria. J Bacteriol 117:1248–1260Google Scholar
- Coleman GS (1960) A sulphate-reducing bacterium from the sheep rumen. J Gen Microbiol 22:423–436Google Scholar
- Dürre P, Andreesen JR (1982) Selenium-dependent growth and glycine fermentation by Clostridium purinolyticum. J Gen Microbiol 128:1457–1466Google Scholar
- Gerhardt P, Murray RGE, Costilow RN, Nester EW, Wood WA, Krieg NR, Phillips GB (1981) Manual of methods for general bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Glauert AM, Thornley MJ (1969) The topography of the bacterial cell wall. Ann Rev Micribiol 23:159–198Google Scholar
- Hamman R, Werner H (1980) Fermentation products (using g.l.c.) in the differentiation of non-sporing bacteria. In: Goodfellow M, Board RG (eds) Microbial classification and identification. Academic Press, London, pp 257–271Google Scholar
- Hilpert W, Dimroth P (1982) Conversion of the chemical energy of methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylation into a Na+-gradient. Nature 296:584–585Google Scholar
- Holdeman LV, Moore WEC (1974) Family I. Bacteroidaceae. In: Buchanan BB, Gibbons NE (eds) Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology 8th edn. Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore, pp 384–418Google Scholar
- Holdeman LV, Cato EP, Moore WEC (1977) Anaerobe laboratory manual, 4th edn. Anaerobe Laboratory Viriginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, BlacksburgGoogle Scholar
- Hsiang MW, Bright HJ (1969) β-Methylaspartase from Clostridium tetanomorphum. In: Lowenstein JM (ed) Methods in enzymology, vol 13. Academic Press, New York, pp 347–353Google Scholar
- Kuenen JG, Veldkamp H (1973) Effects of organic compounds on growth of chemostat cultures of Thiomicrospira pelophila, Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus neapolitanus. Arch Mikrobiol 94:173–190Google Scholar
- Kun E, Kearney EB (1974) Ammonia. In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 1802–1806Google Scholar
- Laanbroek HJ, Pfennig N (1981) Oxidation of short-chain fatty acids by sulfate-reducing bacteria in fresh-water and marine sediments. Arch Microbiol 128:330–335Google Scholar
- Laanbroek HJ, Smit AJ, Klein-Nulend G, Veldkamp H (1979) Competition for glutamate between specialized and versatile Clostridium species. Arch Microbiol 120:61–67Google Scholar
- Laanbroek HJ, Abee T, Voogd IL (1982) Alcohol conversions by Desulfobulbus propionicus Lindhorst in the presence and absence of sulfate and hydrogen. Arch Microbiol 133:178–184Google Scholar
- Lang E, Lang H (1972) Spezifische Farbreaktion zum direkten Nachweis der Ameisensäure. Fresenius Z Anal Chem 260:8–10Google Scholar
- Lerud RF, Whiteley HR (1971) Purification and properties of α-ketoglutarate reductase from Micrococcus aerogenes. J Bacteriol 106:571–577Google Scholar
- Lovley DR, Dwyer DF, Klug MJ (1982) Kinetic analysis of competition between sulfate reducers and methanogens for hydrogen in sediments. Appl Environm Microbiol 43:1373–1379Google Scholar
- Mandel M, Marmur J (1968) Use of ultraviolet absorbance-temperature profile for determining the guanine plus cytosine content of DNA. In: Grossman L, Moldave K (eds) Methods in enzymology, vol 12B. Academic Press, New York, pp 195–206Google Scholar
- Marmur J (1961) A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from microorganisms. J Molec Biol 3:208–218Google Scholar
- Nagase M, Matsuo T (1982) Interactions between amino-acid-degrading bacteria and methanogenic bacteria in anaerobic digestion. Biotechnol Bioeng 24:2227–2239Google Scholar
- Odom JM, Peck HD (1981) Localization of dehydrogenases, reductases, and electron transfer components in thesulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas. J Bacteriol 147: 161–169Google Scholar
- Pfennig N, Widdel F, Trüper HG (1981) The dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria. In: Starr MP, Stolp H, Trüper HG, Balows A, Schlegel HG (eds) The prokaryotes. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 926–940Google Scholar
- Reeburgh WS (1983) Rates of biogeochemical processes in anoxic sediments. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 11:269–298Google Scholar
- Schink B, Pfennig N (1982) Fermentation of trihydroxybenzenes by Pelobacter acidigallici gen. nov. sp. nov., a new strictly anaerobic, non-sporeforming bacterium. Arch Microbiol 133: 195–201Google Scholar
- Schink B, Stieb M (1983) Fermentative degradation of polyethylene glycol by a strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative, nonsporeforming bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov. Appl Environm Microbiol 45:1905–1913Google Scholar
- Senez JC, Leroux-Gilleron J (1954) Preliminary note on the anaerobic degradation of cysteine and cystine by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Bull Soc Chim Biol 36:553–559Google Scholar
- Skyring GW, Jones HE, Goodchild D (1977) The taxonomy of some new isolates of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria. Can J Microbiol 23:1415–1425Google Scholar
- Smith RL, Klug MJ (1981) Electron donors utilized by sulfatereducing bacteria in eutrophic lake sediments. Appl Environm Microbiol 42:116–121Google Scholar
- Stams AJM, Veenhuis M, Weenk GH, Hansen TA (1983) Occurrence of polyglucose as a storage polymer in Desulfovibrio species and Desulfobulbus propionicus. Arch Microbiol 136: 54–59Google Scholar
- Thauer RK, Jungermann K, Decker K (1977) Energy conservation in chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria. Bacteriol Rev 41:100–180Google Scholar
- Trüper HG, Schlegel HG (1964) Sulphur metabolism in Thiorhodaceae. I. Quantitative measurements of growing cells of Chromatium okenii. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J Microbiol Serol 30:225–238Google Scholar
- Widdel F, Pfennig N (1982) Studies on dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria that decompose fatty acids. II. Incomplete oxidation of propionate by Desulfobulbus propionicus gen. nov. sp. nov. Arch Microbiol 131:360–365Google Scholar
- Wolin MJ (1982) Hydrogen transfer in microbial communities. In: Bull AT, Slater JH (eds) Microbial interactions and communities. Academic Press, London, pp 323–356Google Scholar
- Zehnder AJB, Wuhrmann K (1977) Physiology of a Methanobacterium strain AZ. Arch Microbiol 111:199–205Google Scholar
- Zeikus JG (1983) Metabolism of one-carbon compounds by chemotrophic anaerobes. Adv Microbial Physiol 24:213–299Google Scholar