Variables influencing cadmium concentrations in hair of pre-school children living in different areas of the Federal Republic of Germany

  • M. Wilhelm
  • D. Hafner
  • I. Lombeck
  • F. K. Ohnesorgel
Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF00409378

Cite this article as:
Wilhelm, M., Hafner, D., Lombeck, I. et al. Int. Arch Occup Environ Heath (1988) 60: 43. doi:10.1007/BF00409378

Summary

The influence of several factors on cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the hair of 474 pre-school children was examined. The study was performed in an industrial (Duisburg) and rural area (Westfalen) of the (FRG). Season, sex, hair color, and place of residence were found to be the main factors influencing Cd levels in hair. Concentrations of Cd in samples obtained during summer were on the average nearly twice as high as those sampled during winter (geometric means: 116.1 vs. 63.7ng/g). Boys had more Cd in their hair than girls (111.5 vs.74.0 ng/g). Cd levels in hair decreased from red to blond, to brown, and black hair. Children living in Duisburg had more Cd in their hair than those from rural areas (103.9 vs.77.Ong/g). Cd content in hair was inversely related to age.

Key words

Cadmium Hair Pre-school children Variables 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Wilhelm
    • 1
  • D. Hafner
    • 2
  • I. Lombeck
    • 3
  • F. K. Ohnesorgel
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut fur ToxikologieDüsseldorf 1Germany
  2. 2.Institut fur PharmakologieDüsseldorf 1Germany
  3. 3.Kinderklinik, Medizinische Einrichtungen der Universität DüsseldorfDüsseldorf 1Germany

Personalised recommendations