Variables influencing cadmium concentrations in hair of pre-school children living in different areas of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Cite this article as:
- Wilhelm, M., Hafner, D., Lombeck, I. et al. Int. Arch Occup Environ Heath (1988) 60: 43. doi:10.1007/BF00409378
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The influence of several factors on cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the hair of 474 pre-school children was examined. The study was performed in an industrial (Duisburg) and rural area (Westfalen) of the (FRG). Season, sex, hair color, and place of residence were found to be the main factors influencing Cd levels in hair. Concentrations of Cd in samples obtained during summer were on the average nearly twice as high as those sampled during winter (geometric means: 116.1 vs. 63.7ng/g). Boys had more Cd in their hair than girls (111.5 vs.74.0 ng/g). Cd levels in hair decreased from red to blond, to brown, and black hair. Children living in Duisburg had more Cd in their hair than those from rural areas (103.9 vs.77.Ong/g). Cd content in hair was inversely related to age.