Advertisement

Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 141, Issue 3, pp 187–194 | Cite as

Studies on the substrate range of Clostridium kluyveri; the use of propanol and succinate

  • William R. Kenealy
  • David M. Waselefsky
Original Papers

Abstract

The metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri has been extensively studied, but the range of substrates C. kluyveri can use for growth has not been fully explored. The use of propanol and succinate as growth substrates were established. C. kluyveri grows on acetate with propanol replacing ethanol. The principle carbon containing products were propionate, valerate, butyrate and hexanoate with traces of heptanoate. When grown with ethanol and succinate the principle carbon-containing products were acetate, butyrate and hexanoate. Hexanol was found as a product when incubated with ethanol and succinate 4-hydroxybutyrate or 3-butenoate. 5-Hexenoate was also a product of 3-butenoate and ethanol metabolism. The splitting of succinate into 2 acetates was indicated with ethanol providing the necessary reducing equivalents. Hydrogen was also found as a source of reducing equivalents but could not replace ethanol. A mechanism of succinate metabolism to acetate was proposed which accounts for growth yield, energetics considerations, carbon balances, production of side products and intermediates.

Key words

Succinate Propanol Hexanoate Anaerobic Metabolism Fermentation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bader J, Günther H, Schleicher E, Simon H, Pohl S, Mannheim W (1980) Utilization of (E)-2-butenoate (crotonate) by Clostridium kluyveri and some other Clostridium species. Arch Microbiol 125:159–165Google Scholar
  2. Bader J, Kim MA, Simon H (1981) The reduction of allyl alcohols by Clostridium species is catalyzed by the combined action of alcohol dehydrogenase and enoate reductase. Hoppe-Seyler's Z Physiol Chem 362:809–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Balch WE, Wolfe RS (1976) New approach to the cultivation of methanogenic bacteria: 2-mercaptoethane sulfonic acid (HS-CoM)-dependent growth of Methanobacterium ruminantium in a pressurized atmosphere. Appl Environ Microbiol 32:781–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barker HA (1947) Clostridium kluyveri. Antonie von Leeuwenhoek J Microbiol Serol 12:167–176Google Scholar
  5. Barker HA, Taha SM (1941) Clostridium kluyveri, an organism concerned in the formation of caproic acid from alcohol. J Bacteriol 43:347–363Google Scholar
  6. Bartsch RG, Barker HA (1961) A vinylacetyl isomerase from Clostridium kluyveri. Arch Biochem Biophys 92:122–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bornstein BT, Barker HA (1948a) The nutrition of Clostridium kluyveri. J Bacteriol 55:223–230Google Scholar
  8. Bornstein BT, Barker HA (1948b) The energy metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri and the synthesis of fatty acids. J Biol Chem 172:659–669Google Scholar
  9. Burton RM, Stadtman ER (1953) The oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetyl coenzyme A. J Biol Chem 202:873–890Google Scholar
  10. Gottschalk G, Barker HA (1967) Presence and stereospecificity of citrate synthase in anaerobic bacteria. Biochem 6:1027–1034PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kenealy WR, Zeikus JG (1981) Influence of corrinoid antagonists on methanogen metabolism. J Bacteriol 146:133–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kunz DA, Weimer PJ (1983) Bacterial formation and metabolism of 6-hydroxyhexanoate: evidence of a potential role for ω oxidation. J Bacteriol 156:567–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. McInerney MJ, Bryant MP, Hespell RB, Costerton JW (1981) Syntrophomonas wolfei: gen. nov. sp. nov., an anaerobic syntrophic, fatty acid oxidizing bacterium. Appl Environ Microbiol 41:1029–1039Google Scholar
  14. Schink B, Pfennig N (1982) Propionigenium modestum gen. nov. sp. nov. a new strictly anaerobic nonsporing bacterium growing on succinate. Arch Microbiol 133:209–216Google Scholar
  15. Stadtman ER (1953) The coenzyme A transophorase system in Clostridium kluyveri. J Biol Chem 203:501–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Stadtman ER (1954) Studies on the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. Rec Chem Progr 15:1–17Google Scholar
  17. Thauer RK, Jungermann K, Henninger H, Wenning J, Decker K (1968a). The energy metabolism of Clostridium kluyveri. Eur J Biochem 4:173–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Thauer RK, Jungermann K, Wenning J, Decker K (1968b). Characterization of crotonate grown Clostridium kluyveri by its assimilatory metabolism. Arch Mikrobiol 64:125–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Thauer RK, Jungermann K, Decker K (1977) Energy conservation in chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria. Bacteriol Rev 41:100–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Tischer W, Bader J, Simon H (1979) Purification and some properties of a hitherto-unknown enzyme reducing the carbon-carbon double bond of α,β-unsaturated carboxylate anions. Eur J Biochem 97:103–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Weimer PJ (1984) Control of product formation during glucose fermentation by Bacillus macerans. J Gen Microbiol 130:103–111Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • William R. Kenealy
    • 1
  • David M. Waselefsky
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Research and Development Department, Experimental StationE. I. du Pont de Nemours and CompanyWilmingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations