Archives of Dermatological Research

, Volume 269, Issue 2, pp 197–204 | Cite as

The ultrastructure and growth of human nails

  • Rodney P. R. Dawber


Public Health Human Nail 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Zaias N (1967) The longitudinal nail biopsy. J Invest Dermatol 49:406–408Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zaias N (1970) The nail in lichen planus. Arch Dermatol 101:264Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wilkinson JD, Dawber RPRD, Bowers RP, Fleming K (1979) Twenty-nail dystrophy of childhood. Br J Dermatol 100:217–221Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wilkinson JD, Dawber RPR, Fleming K, Bowers R (1979) Twenty-nail dystrophy. Arch Dermatol 115:369Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Breathnach SM, Wilkinson JD, Black MM (1979) Systemic amyloidosis with an underlying lymphoroliferative disorder. Clin Exp Dermatol 4:495Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baran R, Dupre A, Sayag J, Letessier S, Robins P, Bureau H (1979) Maladie de Bowen de l'appareil ungueal. Ann Dermatol Venereol (Paris) 106:227–233Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Biedermann W (1926) Vergleichende des Integuments der Wirbeltiere. Ergeb Biol 2:1Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thorndyke EE (1966) A microscopic study of the marmoset claw and nail. Am J Phys Anthropol NS 28:247Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lewis BL (1954) Microscopic studies of foetal and mature nail and surrounding soft tissue. Arch Dermatol 70:732Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zaias N (1963) Embryology of the human nail. Arch Dermatol 87:37Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Spearman RIG (1978) In: Jarrett A (ed) The physiology and pathophysiology of the skin, vol 5, chapt. 59 Acad. Press, London New York San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pinkus F (1927) In: Jadassohn J (ed) Handbuch der Haut und Geschlechtskrankheiten, 1/1. Julius Springer, Berlin, pp 267–289Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roth SI (1967) Hair and nail. In: Zelickson AS (ed) Ultrastructure of normal and abnormal skin. Kimpton, London, p 105Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jarrett A, Spearman RIG (1966) The biochemistry of the human nail. Arch Dermatol 94:652Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Breathnach AS (1971) An atlas of the ultrastructure of human skin. Churchill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baden HP (1970) The physical properties of nail. J Invest Dermatol 55:115Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zelickson AS (1967) Ultrastructure of normal and abnormal skin. Kimpton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Spearman RIC (1973) The integument. A textbook of skin biology. Cambridge Univ. Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cane AK, Spearman RIC (1967) A histochemical study of keratinisation in the domestic fowl. J. Zool (Lond) 153:337Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Forslind B (1970) Biophysical studies of the normal nail. Acta Dermatol Venereol (Stockh) 50:161Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jarrett A, Spearman RIC, Hardy JA (1959) The histochemistry of keratinisation. Br J Dermatol 71:277Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Forslind B, Wroblewski R, Afzelius BA (1976) Calcium and sulphur location in human nail. J Invest Dermatol 67:273Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gillespie JM, Frenkel MJ (1974) The divesity of keratins. Compar Biochem Physiol 47B:339Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gillespie JM, Inglis AS (1965) A comparison of high sulphur proteins from α-keratins. Compar Biochem Physiol 15:175Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pautard FGE (1964) Calcification of keratin. In: Rook A, Champion RH (eds) Progress in the biological sciences in relation to dermatology, vol 2. Cambridge Univ. Press, London, p 227Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pautard FGE (1963) Mineralisation of keratin and its comparison with the enamel matrix. Nature (Lond) 199:531Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vellar OD (1970) Composition of human nail substance. Am J Clin Nutrit 23:1271Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Spearman RIC (1976) Keratins and keratinisation. In: Comparative biology of skin. Symposium of the Zoological Soc. of London, No 39. Acad. Press, London New York, p 356Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kligman AM (1961) Why do nails grow out and not up? Arch Dermatol 84:313Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hashimoto K, Gross BG, Nelson R, Lever WF (1966) The ultrastructure of the skin of human embryos. III. The formation of the nail in 16-18-week-old embryos. J Invest Dermatol 17:205Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zaias N, Alvarez J (1968) The formation of the primate nail plate. An autoradiographic study in the squirrel monkey. J Invest Dermatol 57:120Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hamilton JB, Terada H, Mestler GE (1955) Studies of growth throughout the lifespan in Japanese: Growth and size of nails and their relation to age, sex, heredity, and other factors. J Geront 10:401Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dawber RPR (1970) Fingernail growth in normal and psoriatic subjects. Br J Dermatol 82:454Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Orentreich N, Markofsky J, Vogelman JH (1979) Effect of ageing on the rate of linear nail growth. J Invest Dermatol 73:126Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Le Gros-Clark WE, Buxton LHD (1938) Studies in nail growth. Br J Dermatol 50:221Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Samman PD (1978) The nails in disease, 3rd ed. Heinemann, London, p 14Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sibinga MS (1959) Observations on growth of fingernails in health and disease. Pediatrics 24:225Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Roberts DF, Sanford MR (1958) A possible climatic effect on nail growth. J Appl Physiol 13:135Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Donovan KM (1977) Antarctic environment and nail growth. Br J Dermatol 96:507Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Montagna W, Parakkal PK (1974) The structure and function of skin. Acad. Press, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Halban J, Spitzer MZ (1929) Über das gesteigerte Wachstum der Nägel in der Schwangerschaft. Monatschr Geburtsh Gynäkol82:25Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Weismann K (1977) J.H.S. Beau and his description of transverse depressions on nails. Br J Dermatol 97:571Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bean WB (1974) Nail growth: 30 years of observations. Arch Int Med 134:497Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schick B (1908) Die physiologische Nagellinie des Säuglings. Säglings Jahro Kinderh 67:146Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Head H, Sherrin J (1905) The consequence of injury to peripheral nerves in man. Brain 28:116Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bean WB (1953) A note on fingernail growth. J Invest. Dermatol 20:27–31Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fitzpartick TB, Arndt KA, Clark WH, Eisen AZ, Van Scott EJ, Vaughan JH (1971) Dermatology in general medicine. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 1078Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dawber RPR (1970) The effect of methotrexate corticosteroid and azathioprine on fingernail growth in psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 83:680Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gilchrist ML, Buxton LHD (1939) The relation of fingernail growth to nutritional status. J Anat 73:575Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dawber RPR, Samman PD, Bottoms E (1971) Fingernail growth in idiopathic and psoriatic onycholysis. Br J Dermatol 85:558Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rodney P. R. Dawber
    • 1
  1. 1.Consultant and Clinical Lecturer in DermatologyUniversity of OxfordOxfordEngland

Personalised recommendations