, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 195–223 | Cite as

Pharmacological studies of spinal cord adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms and their relation to physical dependence on morphine

  • William R. Martin
  • C. G. Eades
Original Investigations


Spinal Cord Morphine Pharmacological Study Physical Dependence Cholinergic Mechanism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anden, N. E., J. Haggendal, T. Magnusson, and E. Rosengren: The time course of the disappearance of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the spinal cord after transection. Acta physiol. scand. 62, 115–118 (1964a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. —, M. G. M. Jukes, A. Lundberg, and L. Vyklicky: A new spinal flexor reflex. Nature (Lond.) 202, 1344–1345 (1964b).Google Scholar
  3. Bernhard, C. G., J. A. B. Gray, and L. Widen: The difference in response of monosynaptic extensor and monosynaptic flexor reflexes to d-tubocurarine and adrenaline. Acta physiol. scand. 29, Suppl. 106, 73–78 (1953).Google Scholar
  4. —, and C. H. Skoglund: Potential changes in spinal cord following intra-arterial administration of adrenaline and noradrenaline as compared with acetylcholine effect. Acta physiol. scand. 29, Suppl. 106, 435–454 (1953).Google Scholar
  5. — —, and P. O. Therman: Studies of the potential level in the ventral root under varying conditions. Acta physiol. scand. 14, Suppl. 47, 1–10 (1947).Google Scholar
  6. Bulbring, E., and J. H. Burn: Observations bearing on synaptic transmission by acetylcholine in the spinal cord. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 100, 337–368 (1941).Google Scholar
  7. Burn, J. H., and M. J. Rand: The action of sympathomimetic amines in animals treated with reserpine. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 144, 314–336 (1958).Google Scholar
  8. Burns, J. J., K. I. Colville, L. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Salvador: Blockade of some metabolic effects of catecholamines by N-isopropylmethoxamine (B.W. 61-43). J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 144, 163–171 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Carlsson, A., B. Falck, K. Fuxe, and N. A. Hillarp: Cellular localization of monoamines in the spinal cord. Acta physiol. scand. 60, 112–119 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. —, T. Magnusson, and E. Rosengren: 5-Hydroxytryptamine of the spinal cord normally and after transection. Experientia (Basel) 19, 359 (1963).Google Scholar
  11. Chennells, M., W. F. Floyd, and S. Wright: Action of condensed alkyl phosphates on the nerve-muscle preparation and the central nervous system of the cat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 108, 375–397 (1949).Google Scholar
  12. — — —: The action of di-isopropylfluorophosphonate on the central nervous system of the eat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 114, 107–118 (1951).Google Scholar
  13. Curtis, D. R., J. C. Eccles, and R. M. Eccles: Pharmacological studies on spinal reflexes. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 136, 420–434 (1957).Google Scholar
  14. —, J. W. Phillis, and J. C. Watkins: Cholinergic and noncholinergic transmission in the mammalian spinal cord. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 158, 296–323 (1961).Google Scholar
  15. Eccles, J. C., P. Fatt, and K. Koketsu: Cholinergic and inhibitory synapses in a pathway from motor-axon collaterals to motoneurones. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 126, 524–562 (1954).Google Scholar
  16. Feldberg, W., J. A. B. Gray, and W. L. M. Perry: Effects of close arterial injections of acetylcholine on the activity of the cervical spinal cord of the cat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 119, 428–438 (1953).Google Scholar
  17. Fernandez de Molina, A., J. A. B. Gray, and J. F. Palmer: Effects of acetylcholine on the activity of the lumbosacral cord of the cat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 141, 169–176 (1958).Google Scholar
  18. Gunne, L. M.: Catecholamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in morphine tolerance and withdrawal. Acta physiol. scand. 58, Suppl. 204, 5–91 (1963).Google Scholar
  19. Hinsey, J. C., S. W. Ranson, and S. R. Zeiss: Observations on reflex activity and tonicity in acute decapitate preparations with and without ephedrine. J. comp. Neurol. 53, 401–417 (1931).Google Scholar
  20. Jacobsen, C. F., and M. A. Kennard: The influence of ephedrine sulphate on the reflexes of the spinal monkey. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 49, 362–374 (1933).Google Scholar
  21. Johnson, C. A., and A. B. Luckhardt: Studies on the kneejerk. VII. The effect of moderate doses of ephedrine sulphate on the kneejerk. Amer. J. Physiol. 86, 614–617 (1928).Google Scholar
  22. Kissel, J. W., and E. F. Domino: The effects of some possible neurohumoral agents on spinal cord reflexes. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 125, 168–177 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kolb, L., and C. K. Himmelsbach: Clinical studies of drug addiction. III. A critical review of the withdrawal treatments with methods of evaluating abstinence syndromes. Amer. J. Psychiat. 94, 759–797 (1938).Google Scholar
  24. Magnusson, T., and E. Rosengren: Catecholamines of the spinal cord normally and after transection. Experientia (Basel) 19, 229–230 (1963).Google Scholar
  25. Martin, W. R., and C. G. Eades: A comparative study of the effects of drugs on activating and vasomotor responses evoked by midbrain stimulation: Atropine, pentobarbital, chlorpromazine and chlorpromazine sulfoxide. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 1, 303–335 (1960).Google Scholar
  26. — —: Demonstration of tolerance and physical dependence in the dog following a short-term infusion of morphine. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 133, 262–270 (1961).Google Scholar
  27. Maynert, E. W., and G. I. Klingman: Tolerance to morphine. I. Effects on catecholamines in the brain and adrenal glands. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 135, 285–295 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. McLennan, H.: The effect of some catecholamines upon a monosynaptic reflex pathway in the spinal cord. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 157, 411–425 (1961).Google Scholar
  29. Schneider, J. A., A. J. Plummer, A. E. Earle, and R. Gaunt: Neuropharmacological aspects of reserpine. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 61, 17–26 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Schweitzer, A., and S. Wright: The action of eserine and related compounds and of acetylcholine on the central nervous system. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 89, 165–197 (1937).Google Scholar
  31. Skoglund, C. R.: Influence of noradrenaline on spinal interneuron activity. Acta physiol. scand. 51, 142–149 (1961).Google Scholar
  32. Sloan, J. W., J. W. Brooks, A. J. Eisenman, and W. R. Martin: The effect of addiction to and abstinence from morphine on rat tissue catecholamine and serotonin levels. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 4, 261–270 (1963).Google Scholar
  33. Swanson, E. E., and K. K. Chen: Pressor activity of l- and d-norepinephrine, U.S.P. reference standard epinephrine and synthetic l-epinephrine. J. Amer. pharm. Ass. 41, 187–188 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Taverner, D.: The action of eserine sulphate on the spinal cord of cats. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 9, 84–90 (1954).Google Scholar
  35. Ten Cate, J., J. T. F. Boeles, and P. A. Biersteker: The action of adrenaline and noradrenaline on the kneejerk. Arch. int. Physiol. 67, 468–488 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Valdecasas, F. G., and J. A. Salva: Action of reserpine on the spinal cat. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 140, 581–591 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Vyklicky, L., and V. Tabin: The effect of amphetamine on spinal reflexes. Nature (Lond.) 204, 384–385 (1964).Google Scholar
  38. Wikler, A., and K. Frank: Hindlimb reflexes of chronic spinal dogs during cycles of addiction to morphine and methadone. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 94, 382–400 (1948).Google Scholar
  39. Wilson, V. J.: Effects of intra-arterial injections of adrenaline on spinal extensor and flexor reflexes. Amer. J. Physiol. 186, 491–496 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • William R. Martin
    • 1
  • C. G. Eades
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Mental Health Addiction Research Center Lexington

Personalised recommendations