Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The behavioural effects of levallorphan, cyprenorphine (M 285) and amphetamine on repeated Y-maze performance in rats

  • 46 Accesses

  • 17 Citations


The effects of levallorphan and cyprenorphine (M 285) were studied on repeated Y-maze performance in rats. It was postulated that these narcotic antagonists—implicated as psychotomimetics—would disrupt the experiencing process and augment fear-motivated behaviour. These compounds produced differential effects on behaviour. Levallorphan induced bizarre-excitation and disrupted habituation; cyprenorphine was ineffective in these respects. No augmentation of fear-motivated behaviour was observed. Amphetamine increased locomotor activity without affecting habituation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Bentley, K. W., Boura, A. L. A., Fitzgerald, A. E., Hardy, D. G., McCoubrey, A., Aikman, M. L., Lister, R. E.: Compounds possessing morphine-antagonizing or powerful analgesic properties. Nature (Lond.) 206, 102–103 (1965).

  2. Bleuler, E.: Dementia praecox of the group of schizophrenias. New York: International Universities Press 1961. In: Randrup, A., Munkvad, I.: Behavioural stereotypies induced by pharmacological agents. Pharmako-psychiatric Neuro-Psycho Pharmakologie 1, 18–26 (1968).

  3. Boura, A. L. A.: Personal communication (1969).

  4. Brimblecombe, R. W.: Hyperthermic effects of some tryptamine derivatives in relation to their behavioural activity. Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 6, 423–429 (1967).

  5. Carlton, P. L.: Cholinergic mechanisms in the control of behaviour by the brain. Psychol. Rev. 70, 19–39 (1963).

  6. —: Brain-acetylcholine and inhibition. In: Reinforcement and Behaviour, pp. 286 to 327. J. T. Tapp, ed. New York: Academic Press 1969.

  7. Cohen, S.: Psychotomimetic agents. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 7, 309 (1967).

  8. Cole, J., Glees, P.: Behavioural effects of lysergic acid diethylamide in monkeys. Arzneimittel-Forsch. 17, 401–404 (1967).

  9. Collier, H. O. J., Schneider, C.: Profiles of activity in rodents of some narcotic and narcotic antagonist drugs. Nature (Lond.) 224, 610–612 (1969).

  10. Corne, S. J., Pickering, R. W.: A possible correlation between drug-induced hallucinations in man and a behavioural response in mice. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 11, 65–78 (1967).

  11. Dandiya, P. C., Gupta, B. D., Gupta, M. L., Patni, S. K.: Effects of LSD on open field performance in rats. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 15, 333–340 (1969).

  12. Del Rio, J., Fuentes, J. A.: Further studies on the antagonism of stereotyped behaviour induced by amphetamine. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 8, 73–78 (1969).

  13. Dixon, A. K.: Evidence of catecholamine mediation in the “aberrant” behaviour induced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the rat. Experientia (Basel) 24, 743–747 (1968).

  14. Eddy, N. B.: In: New concepts in pain and its clinical management, p. 78. E. L. Way, ed. Philadelphia: Davis 1967.

  15. Evarts, E. V.: Some effects of bufotenine and lysergic acid diethylamide on the monkey. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.) 75, 49–53 (1956).

  16. Fog, R.: Stereotyped and non-stereotyped behaviour in rats induced by various stimulant drugs. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 14, 299–304 (1969).

  17. —: Behavioural effects in rats of morphine and amphetamine and of a combination of the two drugs. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 16, 305–312 (1970).

  18. —, Randrup, A., Pakkenberg, H.: Aminergic mechanisms in corpus striatum and amphetamine-induced stereotyped behaviour. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 11, 179–183 (1967).

  19. Goldstein, M., Anagnoste, B., Lauber, E., McKerzghan, M. R.: Inhibition of dopamine-β-hydroxylase by disulfiram. Life Sci. 3, 763–767 (1964).

  20. Haertzen, C. A.: cited by W. R. Martin in Opioid antagonists. Pharmacol. Rev. 19, 477 (1967).

  21. —: Subjective effects of narcotic antagonists cyclazocine and nalorphine on the Addition Research Center Inventory (ARCI). Psychopahrmacologia (Berl.) 18, 366–377 (1970).

  22. Hoffer, A., Osmond, H.: The hallucinogens, pp. 125–126. New York: Academic Press 1967.

  23. Jacob, J., Lafille, C.: Caractérisation et détection pharmacologiques des substances hallucinogènes. I. Activités hyperthermisantes chez le lapin. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 145, 528–545 (1963).

  24. Jasinski, D. R., Martin, W. R., Hoeldtke, R. D.: Effects of short and long-term administration of pentazocine in man. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 11, 385–408 (1970).

  25. Jonas, S., Downer, J. de C.: Gross behavioural changes in monkeys following administration of LSD-25, and development of tolerance to LSD-25. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 6, 303–306 (1964).

  26. Keats, A. S., Telford, J.: Subjective effects of nalorphine in hospitalized patients. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 119, 370–375 (1957).

  27. Key, B. J., Bradley, P. B.: The effects of drugs on conditioning and habituation to arousal stimuli in animals. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 1, 450–462 (1960).

  28. Kumar, R.: Psycho-active drugs, exploratory activity and fear. Nature (Lond.) 218, 587–588 (1968).

  29. —: Exploration and latent learning: differential effects of dexamphetamine on components of exploratory behaviour in rats. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 16, 54–72 (1969).

  30. Lasagna, L.: Drug interaction in the field of analgesic drugs. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 58, 978–983 (1965).

  31. Little, M. D., Dill, R. E.: Mescaline and other o-methylated β-phenyl-ethylamines: intra-striatal induction of tremor in rats. Brain Res. 13, 360–366 (1969).

  32. Marriott, A. S., Spencer, P. S. J.: Effects of centrally acting drugs on exploratory behaviour in rats. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 25, 432–441 (1965).

  33. Mettler, F. A.: Perceptual capacity, functions of the corpus striatum and schizophrenia. Psychiat. Quart. 29, 89–111 (1955).

  34. Munkvad, I., Randrup, A.: The persistence of amphetamine stereotypes of rats in spite of strong sedation. Acta psychiat. scand. Suppl. 191, 178–187 (1966).

  35. Musacchio, J., Kopin, I. J., Snyder, S.: Effects of disulfiram on tissue norepinephrine content and subcellular distribution of dopamine, tyramine and their β-hydroxylated metabolites. Life Sci. 3, 769–775 (1964).

  36. Randrup, A., Munkvad, I.: Pharmacological studies on the brain mechanisms underlying two forms of behavioural excitation: stereotyped hyperactivity and “rage”. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 159, 928–938 (1969).

  37. — —: Stereotyped activities produced by amphetamine in several animal species and man. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 11, 300–310 (1967).

  38. Randrup, A., Munkvad, I.: Relation of brain catecholamines to aggressiveness and other forms of behavioural excitation. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on the biology of aggressive behaviour, Milan, 1968, pp. 228–235. S. Garattini and E. B. Sigg, eds. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica 1969.

  39. Rosecrans, J. A.: Differences in brain area 5-hydroxytryptamine turnover and rearing behaviour in rats and mice of both sexes. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 9, 379–382 (1970).

  40. Rushton, R., Steinberg, H., Tinson, C.: Effects of single experience on subsequent reactions to drugs. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 20, 99–105 (1963).

  41. Schneider, C.: Behavioural effects of some morphine antagonists and hallucinogens in the rat. Nature (Lond.) 220, 586–587 (1968).

  42. Sheard, M. H., Aghajanian, G. K.: Stimulation of midbrain raphé neurons: behavioural effects of serotonin release. Life Sci. 7, 19–25 (1968).

  43. Steinberg, H., Rushton, R., Tinson, C.: Modification of the effects of an amphetamine-barbiturate mixture by the past experience of rats. Nature (Lond.) 192, 533–535 (1961).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wray, S.R., Cowan, A. The behavioural effects of levallorphan, cyprenorphine (M 285) and amphetamine on repeated Y-maze performance in rats. Psychopharmacologia 21, 257–267 (1971). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00403864

Download citation


  • Narcotic Antagonist
  • Psychotomimetic
  • Habituation
  • Activity
  • Stress