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Zoomorphology

, Volume 113, Issue 4, pp 211–232 | Cite as

Introvert, mouth cone, and nervous system of Echinoderes capitatus (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) and implications for the phylogenetic relationships of Kinorhyncha

  • Monika Nebelsick
Article

Summary

The introvert, mouth cone, and nervous system of Echinoderes capitatus were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The introvert bears seven rings of primarily quincunxial sensory scalids, including type 1 and 2 spinoscalids as well as trichoscalids; the latter two types are additionally provided with glandular cells. The mouth cone bears one ring of decamerous sensory oral styles and three rings of quincunxial sensory pharyngeal styles. The intra- to basiepithelial, bilateral nervous system consists of a circumentric nerve ring in the introvert, a terminal and proximal nerve ring in the mouth cone, a ventral chain of ganglia, one in each trunk zonite, and a caudal ganglion. The introvert, the neck, and the trunk zonites are innervated from the forebrain; the mouth cone and the pharyngeal bulb are innervated from the hindbrain. The monophyly of the Kinorhyncha is based upon the following autapomorphic characters: (1) a mouth cone, (2) a neck with 16 placids, (3) a trunk with 11 zonites, (4) scalids of three types: type 1 and type 2 spinoscalids, and trichoscalids, (5) an anteriormost ring of ten type 1 spinoscalids (sensory organs divided into a basal and a terminal part), (6) a posteriormost ring of 14 trichoscalids (glandular sensory organs which are undivided), (7) rings in between the anteriormost and posteriormost are type 2 spinoscalids (glandular sensory organs divided into a basal and a terminal part), (8) a mouth cone with a terminal and a proximal nerve ring, (9) nine sensory oral styles with decamerous symmetry (the dorsal style is missing) and (10) three rings of sensory pharyngeal styles with, from anterior to posterior, ten, five, and five styles with quincunxial arrangement. The following characters are assumed to be autapomorphic for the taxon Nematoda+Gastrotricha+Kinorhyncha+Loricifera+Priapulida: (1) a basiepithelial circumentric brain and (2) a neuropileous nerve ring in a subterminal position. The following characters are assumed to be autapomorphic for the taxon Kinorhyncha+Loricifera+Priapulida: (1) a neuropileous nerve ring in a terminal position, (2) an introvert with scalids, (3) an eversible foregut and (4) tanycytes.

Keywords

Electron Microscopy Scanning Electron Microscopy Nervous System Developmental Biology Phylogenetic Relationship 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monika Nebelsick
    • 1
  1. 1.Abteilung für Meeresbiologie und Ultrastrukturforschung, Institut für ZoologieUniversität WienWien

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