An experiment is described in which chlordiazepoxide or placebo was administered to a group of low anxious normal male volunteers with and without instructions of a set (expectation) that the drugs would decrease their feelings of hostility and anxiety. The data indicated that chlordiazepoxide alone, and expectation alone, each increase hostility scores, but that when combined together, there was no such increase in baseline hostility levels. Introduction of set after hostility levels were increased served to further increase rather than reverse these scores. Drug, placebo, expectation or the combination of drug and expectation had no effect on anxiety scores.
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Supported by: NIMH Grant # MH 12279-02.
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Salzman, G., DiMascio, A., Shader, R.I. et al. Chlordiazepoxide, expectation and hostility. Psychopharmacologia 14, 38–45 (1969). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00401533