The association between two species of the genus Aphanocapsa (Cyanophyceae) and the sponge Ircinia variabilis has been studied by electron microscopy. A. feldmanni is localized in the mesohyl or inside the cells of the sponge, while the larger A. raspaigellae is located only in an extracellular position inside cavities of the mesohyl. Both algae differ from other symbiotic Cyanophyceae in having a normal cell wall. They are able to reproduce in symbiotic condition, but also undergo, in their various extracellular and intracellular positions, a massive process of disintegration. A large amount of algal material is dispersed in the sponge tissues, which is a confirmation, at the ultrastructural level, of trophic relationships in the symbiosis Aphanocapsa-Ircinia.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Feldmann, J.: Sur quelques cyanophycées vivant dans les tissus des eponges de Banyuls. Archs Zool. exp. gén. 75, 381–404 (1933).
Hall, W. T. and G. Claus: Ultrastructural research on the blue-green algalsymbiont of Cyanophora paradoxa Korschikoff. J. Cell. Biol. 19, 8–28 (1963).
Lefort, M.: Sur le chromatoplasme d'une cyanophycée endosymbiotique: Glaucocystis nostochinearum Itzigs. C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 261, 233–236 (1965).
Luft, J. H.: Improvements in epoxy resin embedding methods. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 9, 409–414 (1961).
Maugini, E.: Contributo alla conoscenza citologica di Nostoc commune Vaucher con particolare riguardo all'ultrastruttura. Caryologia. 19, 267–298 (1966).
Muscatine, L.: Glycerol excretion by symbiotic algae from corals and Tridacna and its control by the host. Science, N.Y. 156, 516–518 (1967).
—, S. J. Karakashian and M. W. Karakashian: Soluble extracellular products of algae symbotic with a ciliate, a sponge and a mutant hydra. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 20, 1–12 (1967).
Ris, H. and R. N. Singh: Electron microscope studies on blue-green algae. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 9, 63–80 (1961).
Roffman, B. and H. M. Lenhoff: Formation of polysaccharides by Hydra from substrate produced by their endosymbiotic algae. Nature, Lond. 221, 381–382 (1969).
Sarà, M.: Associations entre éponges et algues unicellulaires dans la Méditerranée. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Commn int. Explor. scient. Mer Méditerr. 18 (2), 125–127 (1965).
—: Associazioni tra Poriferi e alghe in acque superficiali del litorale marino. Ricerca scient. 36, 277–282 (1966).
— e L. Liaci: Associazione fra la Cianoficea Aphanocapsa feldmanni e alcune Demospongie marine. Boll. Zool. 31, 55–65 (1964).
Smith, D. C., L. Muscatine and D. Lewis: Carbohydrate movement from autotrophs to heterotrophs in parasite and mutualistic symbiosis. Biol. Rev. 44, 17–90 (1969).
von Holt, C. and M. von Holt: The secretion of organic compounds by Zooxanthellae isolated from various types of Zoanthus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 24, 83–92 (1968a).
— and M. von Holt: Transfer of photosynthetic products from Zooxanthellae to coelenterate hosts. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 24, 73–81 (1968b).
Communicated by B. Battaglia, Padua
About this article
Cite this article
Sarà, M. Ultrastructural aspects of the symbiosis between two species of the genus Aphanocapsa (Cyanophyceae) and Ircinia variabilis (Demospongiae). Mar. Biol. 11, 214–221 (1971). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00401270
- Electron Microscopy
- Cell Wall
- Normal Cell