Rhesus monkeys, conditioned to respond to a scaled series of different sized letters E by a shock-reinforced psychophysical method of constant stimuli, were tested following treatment with several drugs. The primary measure employed was change in reaction time — a variable which proved sensitive to magnitude and overall direction of change. These data were plotted as a function of stimulus values for each dose of drug. The resulting curves were analyzed to determine significant relationships between various classes of drugs.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abood, L. G., and J. H. Biel: Anticholinergic psychotomimetic agents. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 4, 217–273 (1962).
Abramson, H. A., M. E. Jarvik, and M. W. Hirsch: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25). X. Effect on reaction time to auditory and visual stimuli. J. Psychol. 40, 39–52 (1955).
Bass, W. C.: An encoding device for logging information from behavioral experiments on punched paper tape. Psychol. Rep. (in press) (1967).
Blough, D. S.: Technique for studying the effects of drugs on discrimination in the pigeon. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 65, 334–344 (1956).
—: Effects of drugs on visually controlled behavior in pigeons. In Psychotropic drugs (Eds. S. Garattini and V. Ghetto), pp. 110–118. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1957a.
—: Some effects of drugs on visual discrimination in the pigeon. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 66, 733–739 (1957b).
—: A method for obtaining psyohophysical thresholds from the pigeon. J. exp. Anal. Behav. 1, 31–43 (1958).
Brown, H.: d-Amphetamine-chlorpromazine antagonism in a food reinforced operant. J. exp. Anal. Behav. 6, 395–398 (1963).
—: Drug-behavior interaction affecting development of tolerance to d-amphetamine as observed in fixed ratio behaviour of rats. Psychol. Rep. 16, 917–921 (1965).
—: Behavioral techniques for the assessment of visually active drugs. Paper presented at American Ordnance Association, CBN Division Meeting, Edgewood Arsenal, Md. (1966).
Carlson, V. R.: Effect of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) on the absolute visual threshold. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 51, 528–531 (1958).
DeVito, R. A., and I. A. Frank: Ditran: Searchlights on psychoses. J. Neuropsychiat. 5, 300–305 (1964).
Dews, P. B.: Studies on behavior. II the effects of pentobarbital, methamphetamine and scopolamine on performances in pigeons involving discriminations. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 115, 380–389 (1955).
Domino, E. F.: Neurobiology of Phencyclidine (Sernyl), a drug with an unusual spectrum of pharmacological activity. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 5, 303–347 (1963).
Feldman, R. S., P. Ellen, W. T. Liberson, and J. Robin: The effect of chlorpromazine on the brightness discrimination of rats with habits and fixations. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 52, 322–326 (1959).
Fuster, J. M.: Lysergic acid and its effects on visual discrimination in monkeys. J. nerv. ment. Dis. 129, 252–256 (1959).
Hanson, H., and N. Guttman: The use of a behavioral stimulant in the study of stimulus generalization. J. exp. Anal. Behav. 4, 209–212 (1961).
Hearst, E.: Drug effects on stimulus generalization gradients in the monkeys. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 6, 57–70 (1964).
Jaffe, J. H.: Narcotic analgesics. In the pharmacological basis of therapeutics (3rd Ed.) (Eds. L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman), pp. 247–284. New York: Macmillan 1965.
Jarvik, M. E., and M. W. Adler: Nature of efficiency decrement produced by nitrous oxide on monkeys in a visual discrimination and delayed response test. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 131, 108–114 (1961).
Key, B. J.: Alterations in the generalization of visual stimuli induced by lysergic acid diethylamide in cats. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.) 6, 327–337 (1964).
Lipman, V. C., P. S. Shurrager, and L. G. Abood: Effect of anticholinergic psychotomimetics on motor activity and body temperature. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 146, 174–191 (1963).
Oskarsson, V.: The effect of strychnine of visual acuity. Acta pharmacol. (Kbh.) 19, 16–22 (1962).
Owen, J. E.: The influence of dl-, d-, and l-amphetamine and d-methamphetamine on a fixed ratio schedule. J. exp. Anal. Behav. 3, 293–310 (1960).
Sharpless, S. K.: Hypnotics and Sedatives. I. The Barbiturates. In the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. (3rd Ed.) (Eds. L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman), pp. 105–128. New York: Macmillan 1965.
Sidman, M.: Drug-behavior interaction. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 65, 282–302 (1956).
Terrace, H. S.: Errorless discrimination learning in the pigeon: Effects of chlorpromazine and imipramine. Science 140, 318–319 (1963).
Thurmond, J. B.: Effects of amphetamine on the monkey's visual threshold. Psychonom. Sci. 3, 115–116 (1965).
Weiss, B., and V. G. Laties: Enhancement of human performance by caffeine and the amphetamine. Pharmacol. Rev. 14, 1–36 (1962).
This work was done under Contract No. DA18-108-AMC-108(A) from the U. S. Army Research Laboratories, Edgewood Arsenal, Edgewood, Maryland to FMC Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey with Abbott Laboratories as subcontractor.
In conducting the research reported herein, the investigators adhered to “Principles of Laboratory Animal Care” as established by the National Society for Medical Research and to the “Guiding Principles for the Humane Care and Use of Animals, December 15, 1962” as stated by the American Psychological Association.
The authors are grateful to C. R. Schuster, Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan for opinion concerning the experimental design; P. G. Sanders, Applied Mathematics Section, Abbott Laboratories, for statistical assistance and to F. A. Gustafson for technical assistance.
About this article
Cite this article
Brown, H., Bass, W.C. Effect of drugs on visually controlled avoidance behavior in rhesus monkeys: a psychophysical analysis. Psychopharmacologia 11, 143–153 (1967). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00401251
- Reaction Time
- Significant Relationship
- Rhesus Monkey
- Avoidance Behavior
- Primary Measure