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Development of the pericalymma larva of Solemya reidi (Bivalvia: Cryptodonta: Solemyidae) as revealed by light and electron microscopy

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Solemya reidi Bernard 1980 is a gutless protobranch bivalve known to possess intracellular chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts in its gill. A light and electron microscope study on the embryology and larval development of S. reidi provides data for the bivalve Subclass Cryptodonta. S. reidi spontaneously spawned large eggs (271 μm in diameter), which developed within individual gelatious egg capsules. The first several cleavages were equal and a distinct molluscan cross was formed at the animal pole of the embryo, features previously unreported in bivalve development. Lecithotrophic pericalymma larvae (similar to the larvae of paleotaxodont protobranch bivalves and aplacophoran molluscs) hatched at 18 to 24 h and remained in the water column for a further 5 d at 10°C. At hatching, larvae measured from 360 to 440 μm in length and from 225 to 265 μm in cross-sectional diameter. Definitive adult structures developed within an epithelial locomotory test entirely covered with compound cilia. The test histolysed at metamorphosis and was ingested throught the mouth into the perivisceral cavity. Length and height of the shell following metamorphosis was 433 μm (±42 μm, n=16) and 282 μm (± 29 μm, n=13), respectively. Primary data and data from the literature show that the type of larval development in both paleotaxodont and cryptodont bivalves cannot be reliably estimated from egg or prodissoconch sizes.

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Communicated by J. M. Shick, Orono

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Gustafson, R.G., Reid, R.G.B. Development of the pericalymma larva of Solemya reidi (Bivalvia: Cryptodonta: Solemyidae) as revealed by light and electron microscopy. Marine Biology 93, 411–427 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00401109

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  • Microscopy
  • Electron Microscope
  • Water Column
  • Bivalve
  • Microscope Study