Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 131–141 | Cite as

The pattern of metal deposition to a woodland ecosystem as revealed by bryophyte analysis

  • Stephen Leharne
  • Euan McPhee
  • Lynda Kingston

Abstract

The concentrations and enrichment factor data for 7 metals has been investigated in samples of Hypnum cupressiforme obtained from various parts of a woodland located to the south east of London and immediately adjacent to the M 25 motorway. Despite the rural location of the woodland, metal level and enrichment factor data suggest a moderate degree of contamination. Application of analysis of variance to the data indicates individual metal levels at woodland edges are significantly different from adjacent internal sites, suggesting enhanced deposition at these edges. The fact that this significance pattern is not repeated at all edges indicates a directional influence on levels. Correlation coefficient data indicates metal/metal associations and allows some speculation about the major pathways by which metals are atmospherically transported to and deposited in the woodland.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bargagli, R., Bargagli, D. & Amato, M. L., and Iosco, F. P.: 1987, ‘Lichen Biomonitoring of Metals in the San Rossore Park: Contrast with Prewvious Pine Needle Data’, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 9, 285.Google Scholar
  2. Fielding, A. H., Li, P. Y. H., and Badsha, K. S.: 1987, ‘Lead Contamination in the Irwell Valley in NW England’, Chemosphere 16, 1105.Google Scholar
  3. Goodman, G. T. and Roberts, T. M.: 1971, ‘Plants and Soils as Indicators of Metals in the Air’, Nature 231, 287.Google Scholar
  4. Krishnan, K., Marshall, W. D., and Hitch, W. I.: 1988, ‘Ionic Alkylleads in Salt Marsh Periwinkles (Littorina irrorata)’, Environ. Sci. and Tecnol. 22, 806.Google Scholar
  5. Kingston, L., Leharne, S., and McPhee, E.: 1988, ‘A Survey of Lead Deposition to a Woodland Ecosystem’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 38, 239.Google Scholar
  6. Martin, M. H. and Coughtrey, P. J.: 1982, The Biological Monitoring of Heavy Metal Pollution, Land and Air, Applied Science Publishers, London.Google Scholar
  7. McPhee, E. C., Leharne, S. A., and Kingston, L.: 1986a, The Impact of Lead from Vehicle Exhaust Emissions upon a Woodland Ecosystem, International Conference of Environmental Quality and Ecosystem Stability, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  8. McPhee, E. C., Leharne, S. A., and Kingston, L.: 1986b, The Pattern of Lead Deposition to a Woodland as Revealed by Bryophyte Analysis, British Ecological Society Winter Meeting, University College, London.Google Scholar
  9. Metereological Office: 1987, private communication.Google Scholar
  10. Miller, J. C. and Miller, J. N.: 1984, Statistics for Analytical Chemistry, Ellis Horwood, Chichester.Google Scholar
  11. Onianwa, P. C. and Ajayi, S. O.: 1987, ‘Heavy Metal Contents of Epiphytic Acrocarpous Mosses within Inhabited Sites in Southwest Nigeria’, Environ. Iternat. 13, 191.Google Scholar
  12. Ruhling, A. and Tyler, G.: 1984, ‘Recent Changes in the Deposition of Heavy Metals in Northern Europe’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 22, 173.Google Scholar
  13. Taylor, S. R.: 1964, ‘Abundance of Chemical Elements in the Continental Crust: A New Table’, Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 28, 1273.Google Scholar
  14. Thomas, W.: 1984, ‘Statistical Models for the Accumulation of PAH, Chlorinated Hydrocarbons and Trace Metals in Epiphytic Hypnum Cupressiforme’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 22, 351.Google Scholar
  15. Thompson, R. L., Ramelow, G. J., Beck, J. N., Langley, M.P., Young, D. M., and Casserly, D. M.: 1987, ‘A Study of Airborne Metals in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana Using the Lichens, Parmelia praesorediosa and Ramalina stenospora’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 36, 295.Google Scholar
  16. Thornton, D.: 1986, ‘Westerham Wood, Kent — A Study in Options for Management’, M.Sc. Thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
  17. Ure, A. M. and Berrow, M. L.: 1982. ‘The Elemental Constituens of Soils’, in Bowen, H. J. M. (ed.), Environmental Chemistry, Volume 2, Royal Society of Chemistry, London.Google Scholar
  18. Wiersma, G. B., Harmon, M. E., Baker, G. A., and Greene, S. E.: 1987, ‘Elemental Composition of Hylocomium Splendens, Hoh Rainforest, Olympic National Park, Washington USA’, Chemosphere 16, 2631.Google Scholar
  19. Yule, F. A. and LLoyd, O. L.: 1984, ‘Metal Content of an Indigenous Moss in Armadale, Central Scotland’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 21, 261.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Leharne
    • 1
    • 2
  • Euan McPhee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lynda Kingston
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesLondonUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.Environmental Health Thames PolytechnicLondonUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations