Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Metal biomonitoring in water resources of Eastern Ghats, Koraput (Orissa), India by aquatic plants


Biomonitoring of toxic metals in the water resources used by indigenous tribal communities in Koraput district, Orissa, India was carried out under the National Technology Mission Project. Most of the water bodies catering for the day-to-day needs of the local inhabitants were found to contain high concentrations of Fe and Mn in addition to Cr, Cd, Pb and Cu. The water bodies supported by a great number of phytodiversity and the plants growing therein accumulated significantly high amounts of these toxic metals, submerged plants being more efficient than floating ones. The species like Chara corallina and Spirogyra spp. showed significant potential to magnify Cd and Pb in their tissue several times more than the concentrations in surrounding water. The levels of metals in the plants occurring at places where the metal content is very high could be used for indicating the status of water.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. American Public Health Association: 1989, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, 14th, Washington DC.

  2. BaudoR., GallantiG., GuilizzoniP. and VariniP. G.: 1981, ‘Relationship Between Heavy Metal and Aquatic Organism in Lake Mezzola Hydrographic System (Northern Italy) 4, Metal Concentration in Six Submerged Aquatic Macrophytes, Mem. Ist. Ital. Idrobiol. 39, 203–225.

  3. CatlingP. M., SpicerK. W., BiernackiM. and DoustJ. L.: 1994, ‘The Biology of Canadian Weeds 103 Vallisneria americana Michx’, Can. J. Pl. Sci. Rev. Can. Phytotech. 74(4), 883–897.

  4. CattaneoA., MethetG., Pinel-AlloulB., NiyonsengaT. and LapierreL.: 1995, ‘Epiphyte Size and Taxonomy as Biological Indicators of Ecological Factors in Lake Saint Francois (Quebec)’, Environ Pollut. 87(83), 357–372.

  5. ChandraP., TripathiR. D., RaiU. N., SinhaS. and GargP.: 1993, ‘Biomonitoring and Amelioration of Non Point Source Pollution in Some Aquatic Bodies’, Wat. Sci. Tech. 28(3–5), 323–326.

  6. GuilizzoniP.: 1991, ‘The Role of Heavy Metals and Toxic Materials in Physiological Ecology of Submerged Macrophytes’, Aquat. Bot. 41, 87–109.

  7. KnowltonM. F., BoyleT. P. and JonesJ. R.: 1983, ‘Uptake of Lead From Aquatic Sediments by Submerged Macrophytes and Crayfish’, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12, 535–541.

  8. MhatreG. N. and ChaphekarS. B.: 1985, ‘The Effect of Mercury on Some Aquatic Plants’, Environ. Pollut. 39(3), 207–216.

  9. NasuY., KugimotoM., TanakaO. and TakimotoA.: 1984, ‘Lemna as an Indicator of Water Pollution and the Absorption of Heavy Metals by Lemna’ in: PoscoeD. and EdwardsR. W. (eds.), Fresh Water Biological Monitoring. Conference Proceedings, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK., pp. 113–120.

  10. NorY. N.: 1990, ‘The Absorbtion of Metal Ions by Eichhornia crassipes’, Chem. Specia. Biovail. 2, 85–91.

  11. RaiU. N. and ChandraP.: 1992, ‘Accumulation of Copper, Lead, Manganese and Iron by Field Populations of Hydrodictyon reticulatum (Linn.) Lagerheim’, Sci. Total Environ. 116, 203–211.

  12. RaiU. N., SinhaS., TripathiR. D. and ChandraP.: 1995, ‘Wastewater Treatability Potential of Some Aquatic Macrophytes: Removal of Heavy Metals’, Ecol. Engre. 5(3), 5–12.

  13. ScheflerW. C.: 1969, Statistics for Biological Sciences, Addison-Wesley, Mento Park, Cal. U.S.A.

  14. SinhaS., RaiU.N. and ChandraP.: 1994a, ‘Accumulation and Toxicity of Iron and Manganese in Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden’, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 53, 610–617.

  15. SinhaS., GuptaM. and ChandraP.: 1994b, ‘Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Cu and Cd in Vallisneria spiralis (L.)’, Environ. Monit. Assess. 33, 75–84.

  16. WerffM. V. and PruytM. J.: 1982, ‘Long-term Effects of Heavy Metals on Aquatic Plants’, Chemosphere 11(8), 727–739.

  17. WHO: 1985, Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, vol. 3, Geneva.

Download references

Author information

Additional information

NBRI Research Publication No. (437) NS.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rai, U.N., Sinha, S. & Chandra, P. Metal biomonitoring in water resources of Eastern Ghats, Koraput (Orissa), India by aquatic plants. Environ Monit Assess 43, 125–137 (1996).

Download citation


  • India
  • Water Resource
  • Water Body
  • Environmental Management
  • Metal Content