Zoomorphology

, Volume 115, Issue 1, pp 11–29 | Cite as

Ultrastructure of the introvert and associated structures of the larvae of Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida)

  • Christian Lemburg
Original Article

Summary

Based on new SEM and TEM observations, the arrangement and ultrastructure of the scalids and adhesive tubuli of the larvae of Halicryptus spinulosus are described. The scalids are arranged in 25 longitudinal rows. Transversally they form seven circlets which alternate. The first circlet consists of 8 and the second of 9 scalids. All following circlets consist of three subrings with 8+8+9 scalids each. New scalids develop in a sub frontal growing zone posterior to the second circlet. The ultrastructure of all different receptor cells and sense organs of the scalids is described. Whereas the receptor cell type 1 occurs in nearly all scalids, the verticalrootlet receptor is restricted to the first circlet, the basal receptor to the second and the coiled-cilium receptor to the third and fourth circlet. Based on these new data, the scalid arrangement and the equipment with different receptor cells can be postulated for the ground pattern of the priapulid larvae. Also the larval development, moulting and the structure of the cuticle are discussed in comparison with the Kinorhyncha and Loricifera.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brown R (1985) Developmental and taxonomic studies of Sidney harbour Kinorhyncha. PhD Thesis, Macquarie University, Australia, pp 193Google Scholar
  2. Brown R (1989) Morphology and ultrastructure of the sensory appendages of a kinorhynch introvert. Zool Scr 18:471–482Google Scholar
  3. Calloway CB (1975) Morphology of the introvert and associated structures of the priapulid Tubiluchus corallicola from Bermuda. Mar Biol 31:161–174Google Scholar
  4. Calloway CB (1982) Priapulida. In: Parker S (ed) Synopsis and classification of living organisms, vol 1. Mc Graw-Hill, New York, pp 941–944Google Scholar
  5. Hammarsten OD (1915) Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte von Halicryptus spinulosus (von Siebold). Z Wiss Zool 112:527–571Google Scholar
  6. Hennig W (1982) Phylogenetische Systematik. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin HamburgGoogle Scholar
  7. Higgins RP (1974) Kinorhyncha. In: Giese C, Paerse JS (eds) Reproduction of marine invertebrates, vol 1. Acoelomate and pseudocoelomate metazoans. Academic Press, New York, pp 507–518Google Scholar
  8. Higgins R (1990) Zelinkaderidae, a new family of cyclorhagid Kinorhyncha. Smithson Contrib Zool 500:1–26Google Scholar
  9. Higgins RP, Kristensen RM (1986) New Loricifera from southeastern United States coastal waters. Smithson Contrib Zool 438:1–70Google Scholar
  10. Higgins RP, Storch V (1989) Ultrastructural observations of the larva of Tubiluchus corallicola (Priapulida). Helgol Meeresunters 43:1–11Google Scholar
  11. Higgins RP, Storch V (1991) Evidence for the direct development in Meiopriapulus fijiensis. Trans Am Microsc Soc 110:37–46Google Scholar
  12. Higgins RP, Storch V, Shirley TC (1993) Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations on the larva of Priapulus caudatus (Priapulida). Acta Zool 74:301–319Google Scholar
  13. Hyman LH (1951) The invertebrates: Acanthocephala, Aschelminthes, and Entoprocta. The pseudocoelomate Bilateria, vol 3. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Kirsteuer E (1976) Notes on adult morphology and larval development of Tubiluchus corallicola (Priapulida), based on in vivo and scanning electron microscopic examinations of specimens from Bermuda. Zool Scr 5:239–255Google Scholar
  15. Kristensen RM (1983) Loricifera, a new phylum with aschelminthes characters from meiobenthos. Z Zool Syst Evolutionsforsch 21:163–180Google Scholar
  16. Kristensen RM (1991a) Loricifera. In: Harrison FW, Ruppert EE (eds) Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates, vol. 4 John Wiley and Sons. New York, pp 351–375Google Scholar
  17. Kristensen RM (1991b) Loricifera — A general biological and phylogenetic overview. Verh Dtsch Zool Ges 84:231–246Google Scholar
  18. Kristensen RM, Higgins RP (1991) Kinorhyncha. In: Harrison RW, Ruppert EE (eds) Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates, vol 4. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 377–404Google Scholar
  19. Land J van der (1970) Systematics, zoogeography, and ecology of the Priapulida. Zool Verh (Leiden) 112:1–118Google Scholar
  20. Land J van der (1975) Priapulida. In: Adiyodi KG, Adiyodi RG (eds) Reproduction of marine invertebrates, vol 2. Academic Press, New York, pp 55–65Google Scholar
  21. Lang K (1939) Über die Entwicklung von Priapulus caudatus Lam. Kungl Fysiogr Sällsk Lund Förhandl 9:80–87Google Scholar
  22. Moritz K (1972) Zur Feinstruktur integumentaler Bildungen bei Priapuliden (Halicryptus spinulosus und Priapulus caudatus). Z Morphol Oekol Tiere 72:203–230Google Scholar
  23. Moritz K, Storch R (1972) Über den ultrastrukturellen Bau der Skaliden von Trachydemus giganteus Zelinka (Kinorhyncha). Mar Biol 16:81–89Google Scholar
  24. Morse MP (1981) Meiopriapulus fijiensis n. gen., n. sp.: an interstitial priapulid from coarse sand in Fiji. Trans Am Microsc Soc 100:239–252Google Scholar
  25. Nebelsick M (1993) Nervous system, introvert, and mouth cone of Echinoderes capitatus and phylogenetic relationships of Kinorhyncha. Zoomorphology 113:211–232Google Scholar
  26. Neuhaus B (1991) Zur Ultrastruktur, Postembryonalentwicklung und phylogenetischen Verwandtschaft der Kinorhyncha. Dissertation Universität GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  27. Neuhaus B (1993) Postembryonic development of Pycnophyes kielensis and P. dentatus (Kinorhyncha) from the North Sea. Microfauna Marina 8:163–193Google Scholar
  28. Neuhaus B (1994a) Ultrastructure of alimentary canal and body cavity, ground pattern, and phylogenetic relationships of the Kinorhyncha. Microfauna Marina 9:61–156Google Scholar
  29. Neuhaus B (1994b) Postembryonic development of Paracentrophyes praedictus (Homalorhagida): Neoteny questionable among the Kinorhyncha. Zool Scr (in press)Google Scholar
  30. Purasjoki KJ (1944) Berträge zur Kentniss der Entwicklung und Ökologie der Halicryptus spinulosus-Larve (Priapulida). Ann Zool Soc Zool Bot Fenn 9:1–14Google Scholar
  31. Sanders HL, Hessler RR (1962) Priapulus atlantisi and Priapulus profundus. Two new species of Priapulids from bathyal and abyssal depth of the North Atlantic. Deep Sea Res 9:125–130Google Scholar
  32. Shapeero WL (1962) The epidermis and cuticular of Priapulus caudatus Lamarck. Trans Am Microsc Soc 81:352–355Google Scholar
  33. Shirley TC (1990) Ecology of Priapulus caudatus Lamarck, 1816 (Priapulida) in an Alaskan subarctic ecosysten Bull Mar Sci 47:149–158Google Scholar
  34. Storch V (1984) Minor pseudocoelomates. In: Bereiter-Hahn J, Matoltsy AG, Richards KS (eds) Biology of the integument, vol 1. Springer Berlin, pp 242–268Google Scholar
  35. Storch V (1991) Priapulida. In: Harrison FW, Ruppert EE (eds) Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates, vol 4 John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 333–350Google Scholar
  36. Storch V, Alberti G (1985) Ultrastructural investigation of the integument of Tubiluchus philippinensis (Priapulida, Tubiluchidae). Zool Scr 14:265–272Google Scholar
  37. Storch V, Higgins RP (1991) Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations on the larva of Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida). J Morphol 210:175–194Google Scholar
  38. Storch V, Higgins RP, Morse MP (1989a) Internal anatomy of Meiopriapulus fijiensis (Priapulida). Trans Am Microsc Soc 108:245–261Google Scholar
  39. Storch V, Higgins RP, Morse MP (1989b) The ultrastructure of the body wall of Meiopriapulus fijiensis (Priapulida). Trans Am Microsc Soc 108:319–331Google Scholar
  40. Storch V, Higgins RP, Rumohr H (1990) Ultrastructure of introvert and pharynx of Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida). J Morphol 203:163–171Google Scholar
  41. Wolter K (1987) Submikroskopische Strukturen von Priapulida der mediterranen Meiofauna. Dissertation Universität Wien 768, pp 146Google Scholar
  42. Wright KA (1991) Nematoda. In: Harrison FW, Ruppert EE (eds) Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates, vol 4. Wiley-Liss Inc, New York, pp 111–195Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Lemburg
    • 1
  1. 1.II. Zoologisches Institut und MuseumUniversität GöttingenGöttingenGermany

Personalised recommendations