Marine Biology

, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 17–23

Gene flow among population of a teleost (painted greenling, Oxylebius pictus) from Puget Sound to southern California

  • B. J. Davis
  • E. E. De Martini
  • K. McGee


Four geographic populations of the painted greenling Oxylebius pictus, a small cryptic reef fish of the western coast of North America, were examined for biochemical evidence of genetic differentiation. Painted greenlings in Puget Sound and those in central and southern California are similar by Nei's genetic identity (I=0.966 to 0.995); Fowever, other observations argue for genetic differentiation among the 4 populations. First, there are geographic differences in allelic frequencies at two loci (Est-3 and Pgm), with a geographic cline exhibited at the latter locus. Second, and most significant, two assayable loci are uniquely present in pairs of populations below Point Conception (G3pdh-3) and above Point Conception (Idh-3), respectively. Larval dispersal patterns are inferred from breeding times for the painted greenling and on patterns of currents off the western coast of North America. We believe that gene flow in this species is less across Point Conception than between Puget Sound, Washington, and Monterey, California, on the basis of these genetic data and the patterns of dispersal.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Allendorf, F. W. and F. M. Utter: Populations genetics. In: Fish physiology, Vol. VIII. pp 407–454. Ed. by W. S. Hoar, D. R. Randall, and J. R. Brett. New York: Academic Press 1979Google Scholar
  2. Avise, J. C.: Systematic value of electrophoretic data. Syst. Zool. 23, 465–481 (1974)Google Scholar
  3. Avise, J. C.: Genetic differentiation during speciation. In: Molecular evolution, pp 106–122. Ed. by F. J. Ayala. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc. 1976Google Scholar
  4. Avise, J. C. and G. B. Kitto: Phosphoglucose isomerase gene duplication in the bony fishes: an evolutionary history. Biochem. Genet. 8, 113–132 (1973)Google Scholar
  5. Ayala, F. J., D. Hedgecock, G. Zumwalt and J. W. Valentine: Genetic variation in Tridacna maxima, an ecological analog of some unsuccessful evolutionary lineages. Evolution, Lawrence, Kansas 27, 177–191 (1973)Google Scholar
  6. Ayala, F. J. and J. W. Valentine: Genetic variability in the pelagic environment: a paradox? Ecology 60, 24–29 (1979)Google Scholar
  7. Cannon, G. A.: Circulation in the Strait of Juan de Fuca: some recent oceanographic observations. NOAA tech. Rep. U.S. Dep. Comm.: ERL 399-PMEL 29, 1–49 (1978)Google Scholar
  8. Crisp, D. J.: Genetic consequences of different reproductive strategies in marine invertebrates. In: Marine organisms: genetics, ecology, and evolution, pp 257–273. Ed. by B. Battaglia and J. A. Beardmore. New York: Plenum Press 1978Google Scholar
  9. Davis B. J.: Distribution and temperature adaptation in the teleost fish genus Gibbonsia. Mar. Biol. 42, 315–320 (1977)Google Scholar
  10. DeMartini, E. E. and M. E. Anderson: Comparative survivorship and life-history of painted greenling (Oxylebius pictus) in Puget Sound, Washington and Monterey Bay, California. Envir. Biol. Fish. 5, 33–47 (1980)Google Scholar
  11. Ehrlich, P. R. and P. H. Raven: Differentiation of populations. Science, N. Y. 165 1228–1232 (1969)Google Scholar
  12. Endler, J. A.: Gene flow and population differentiation. Science, N.Y. 179, 243–250 (1973)Google Scholar
  13. Fisher, S. E., J. B. Shaklee, S. D. Ferris and G. S. Whitt: Evolution of five multilocus isozyme systems in the chordates. Genetica 53, 73–85 (1980)Google Scholar
  14. Gorman, G. C. and Y. J. Kim: Genotypic evolution in the face of phenotypic conservativeness: Abedufduf (Pomacentridae) from the Atlantic and Pacific sides of Panama. Copei 1977, 694–697 (1977)Google Scholar
  15. Gould S. J. and R. F. Johnston: Geographic variation. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 3, 457–498 (1972)Google Scholar
  16. Haldorson, L. J.: Geographic variation in two surfperches (Embiotocidae): local differentiation in one-dimensional population structure, 175 pp. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Santa Barbara 1978Google Scholar
  17. Hedrick, P. W., M. E. Ginevan and E. P. Ewing: Genetic polymorphism in heterogeneous environments. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7, 1–32 (1976)Google Scholar
  18. Horn, M. H. and L. G. Allen: A distribution analysis of California coastal marine fishes. J. Biogeogr. 5, 23–42 (1978)Google Scholar
  19. Hubbs, C. L.: Changes in the fish fauna of western North America as correlated with changes in ocean temperature. J. mar. Res. 7, 459–482 (1948)Google Scholar
  20. Johnson, M. S.: Association of allozymes and temperature in the crested blenny Anoplarchus purpurescens. Mar. Biol. 41, 147–152 (1977)Google Scholar
  21. Kimura, M. and T. Ohta: Theoretical aspects of population genetics, 219 pp. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press 1971Google Scholar
  22. Koehn, R. K. and G. C. Williams: Genetic differentiation without isolation in the American eel, Anguilla rostrata. II. Temporal stability of geographic patterns. Evolution, Lawrence, Kansas 32, 624–637 (1978)Google Scholar
  23. Kuhl, C. P., J. Schmidtke, C. Weiler and W. Engel: Phosphoglucose isomerase isozymes in the characid fish Cheirodon axelrodi: evidence for a spontaneous gene duplication. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 55 B, 279–281 (1976)Google Scholar
  24. Levene, H.: On a matching problem arising in genetics. Ann. math. Statist. 20, 91–94 (1949)Google Scholar
  25. Levinton, J. S. and T. H. Suchanek: Geographic variation, niche breadth and genetic differentiation at different geographic scales in the mussles Mytilus californianus and M. edulis. Mar. Biol. 49, 363–375 (1978)Google Scholar
  26. Love, M. S. and R. J. Larson: Geographic variation in the occurrence of tympanic spines and possible genetic differentiation in the kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens). Copeia 1978, 53–59 (1978)Google Scholar
  27. Miller, D. J. and J. J. Geibel: Summary of blue rockfish and lingcod life histories; a reef ecology study; and giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, experiments in Montery Bay, California. Fish Bull. Calif. 158, 1–137 (1973)Google Scholar
  28. Miller, D. J. and R. N. Lea: Guide to the coastal marine fishes of California. Fish Bull. Calif. 157, 1–235 (1972)Google Scholar
  29. Mitton, J. B. and R. K. Koehn: Genetic organization and adaptive response of allozymes to ecological variables in Fundulus heteroclitus. Genetics, Austin, Texas 79, 97–111 (1975)Google Scholar
  30. Nei, M.: Interspecific gene differences and evolutionary time estimated from electrophoretic data on protein identity. Am. Nat. 105, 385–398 (1971)Google Scholar
  31. Nei, M.: Genetic distance between populations. Am. Nat. 106, 283–292 (1972)Google Scholar
  32. Nevo, E.: Genetic variation in natural populations: patterns and theories. Theor. Popul. Biol. 13, 121–177 (1978)Google Scholar
  33. Parrish, R. H., C. S. Nelson and A. Bakun: Transport mechanisms and reproductive success of fishes in the California Current. Biol. Oceanogr. 1 (In press). (1981)Google Scholar
  34. Peden, A. E. and D. E. Wilson: Distribution of intertidal and subtidal fishes of northern British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Syesis 9, 221–248 (1976)Google Scholar
  35. Sassaman, C. and R. M. Yoshiyama: Lactate dehydrogenase: a polymorphism of Anoplarchus purpurescens: geographic variation in central California. J. Hered. 70, 329–334 (1979)Google Scholar
  36. Sattler, P. W. and J. S. Mecham: Gene duplication at an isocitrate dehydrogenase locus in Scaphiopus. J. Hered. 70, 352–353 (1979)Google Scholar
  37. Selander, R. K., M. H. Smith, S. Y. Yang, W. E. Johnson and J. B. Gentry: Biochemical polymorphism and systematics in the genus Peromyscus. I. Variation in the old-field mouse (Peromyscus polionotus). Univ. Tex. Publs 7103, 49–90 (1971)Google Scholar
  38. Smith, P. J.: Glucosephosphate isomerase and phosphoglucomutase polymorphisms in the New Zealand ling Genypterus blacodes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 62B, 573–577 (1979)Google Scholar
  39. Smith, P. J., R. I. Francis and L. J. Paul: Genetic variation and population structure in the New Zealand snapper. N.Z. Jl mar. Freshwat. Res. 12, 343–350 (1978)Google Scholar
  40. Somero, G. N. and M. Soule: Genetic variation in marine fishes as a test of the niche-variation hypothesis. Nature, Lond. 249, 670–672 (1974)Google Scholar
  41. Swank, S. E.: Population genetics and evolution of some intertidal fishes of the genus Clinocottus, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California 1979Google Scholar
  42. Turner, C. H., E. E. Ebert and R. R. Given: Man-made reef ecology. Fish Bull. Calif. 146, 1–221 (1969)Google Scholar
  43. Utter, F. M. and H. O. Hodgins: Lactate dehydrogenase isozymes of Pacific hake (Merluccius productus). J. exp. Zool. 172, 59–67 (1969)Google Scholar
  44. Valentine, J. W.: Numerical analysis of marine molluscan ranges on the extratropical northeastern Pacific shelf. Limnol. Oceanogr. 11, 198–211 (1966)Google Scholar
  45. Vawter, A. T., R. Rosenblatt and G. C. Gorman: Genetic divergence among fishes of the eastern Pacific and the Caribbean: support for the molecular clock. Evolution, Lawrence, Kansas 34, 705–711 (1980)Google Scholar
  46. Winans, C. A.: Geographic variation in the milkfish Chanos chanos. I. Biochemical evidence. Evolution, Lawrence, Kansas 34, 558–574 (1980)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. J. Davis
    • 1
  • E. E. De Martini
    • 2
  • K. McGee
    • 1
  1. 1.San Francisco State UniversitySan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Marine Science InstituteUniversity of California at Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations