Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 225–238 | Cite as

Description of a Tetraclita stalactifera panamensis community on a rocky intertidal Pacific shore of Panama

  • A. A. Reimer
Article

Abstract

The midlittoral zone at Paitilla Beach, Panama, Is occupied by a group of organisms closely associated with Tetraclita stalactifera panamensis. Upon death, this cirripede provides housing for a number of species bound by common substrata and interacting with each other due to their close physical proximity; the faunistic group associated with each barnacle qualifies then, as a small, well-defined community which represents a subsample of the more comprehensive midlittoral community dominated by T. stalactifera panamensis. In patches where it is abundant, T. stalactifera panamensis occupies 28% of the surface area available. It has a relative abundance of only 1% of the specimens found in the zone, but all the other 95 species (with an average of 26, 810 individuals/m2) identified from the area are associated either with the parietal canals, or the external or internal surfaces of T. stalactifera panamensis tests. Each one of these structures represents a habitat which provides surface for attachment, shelter, or both, to 37 species of polychaetes, 32 of mollusks, 20 of crustaceans, 3 of actiniarians, 2 of pycogonids, 2 of sipunculans and an unknown number of tanaid, nemertean and turbellarian species. The single most diverse space-niche is represented by the parietal canals (H=0.783), occupied mostly by polychaetes. dead barnacles harbor an average of 131 individuals per test, which compose a fauna of higher diversity (H=0.678) than that associated with live barnacles (H=0.163). The latter contain 53 specimens per test on the average. Although there is considerable overlapping of species associated with the different T. stalactifera panamensis space-niches, mollusks are clearly more abundant on internal surfaces, polychaetes in parietal, canals; Balanus spp. on external surfaces, and anemones at the base of the parapet on the external surfaces of the tests. Over 220 species of macro-invertebrates were identified from the rocky intertidal at Paitilla. Most of the species are concentrated in the lower (157 species, 1824 specimens/m2) and midlittoral (96 species, 26, 810 specimens/m2) intertidal zones. Splash zone is depauperate (6 species, 1578 specimens/m2). Of the entire fauna identified from the intertidal, 73 species (33%) occur in more than one zone and 147 (67%) are restricted to a particular belt. This last category of zone-restricted species breaks down into 42% for the lower intertidal, 17% for the midlittoral, 6% for the intermediate zone, and 2% for the splash zone.

Keywords

Beach Mollusk Polychaete Internal Surface Intertidal Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Bakus, G.J.: Zonation in marine gastropods of Costa Rica and species diversity. Veliger 10, 207–211 (1968)Google Scholar
  2. Barnes, H. and H.T. Powell: The development, general morphology and subsequent elimination of barnacle populations, Balanus crenatus and B. balanoides, after a heavy initial settlement. J. Anim. Ecol. 19, 175–179 (1950)Google Scholar
  3. Birkeland, C.E., A.A. Reimer and J.R. Young: Effects of oil on tropical shore natural communities in Panama. FWQA, E.P.A. Report on project No. 18050 EFV, Contract No. 14-12-874 (1974) (Unpublished)Google Scholar
  4. Connell, J.H.: Studies on some factors affecting the recruitment and mortality of natural populations of intertidal barnacles. In: Marine borers and fouling organisms, pp 226–233. Ed. by D.L. Ray. Seattle: University of Washington Press 1959Google Scholar
  5. — The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42, 710–723 (1961a)Google Scholar
  6. — Effects of competition, predation by Thais lapillus, and other factors on natural populations of the barnacle Balanus balanoides. Ecol. Monogr. 31, 61–103 (1961b)Google Scholar
  7. — A predator-prey system in the marine intertidal region. 1. Balanus glandula and several predatory species of Thais. Ecol. Monogr. 40, 49–78 (1970)Google Scholar
  8. Dayton, P.K.: Competition, disturbance, and community organization: the provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community. Ecol. Monogr. 41, 351–389 (1971)Google Scholar
  9. Fager, E.W.: The community of invertebrates in decaying oak wood. J. Anim. Ecol. 37, 121–142 (1968)Google Scholar
  10. Glynn, P.W.: Community composition, structure and interrelationships in the marine intertidal Endocladia muricata — Balanus glandula association in Monterrey Bay, California. Beaufortia 12, 1–98 (1965)Google Scholar
  11. — A new genus and two new species of sphaeromatid isopods from the high intertidal zone at naos Island, Panama. Proc. biol. Soc. Wash. 81, 587–604 (1968)Google Scholar
  12. Hatton, H.: Essais de bionomie explicative sur quelques espèces intercotidales d'algues et d'anumaux. Annls Inst. océanogr., Monaco 17, 241–348 (1938)Google Scholar
  13. Knight-Jones, E.W.: Laboratory experiments on gregariousness during settling in Balanus balanoides and other barnacles. J. exp. Biol. 30, 584–598 (1953)Google Scholar
  14. Kohn, A.J.: Environmental complexity and species diversity in the gastropod genus Conus on Indo-West Pacific reef platforms. Am. Nat. 101, 251–259 (1967)Google Scholar
  15. Lewis, J.B.: The fauna of rocky shores of Barbados, West Indies. Can. J. Zool. 38, 391–435 (1960)Google Scholar
  16. Lewis, J.R.: The ecology of rocky shores, 323 pp. London: English University Press Ltd. 1964Google Scholar
  17. Lloyd, M., J.H. Zar and J.R. Karr: On the calculation of information — theoretical measures of diversity. Am. Midl. Nat. 79, 257–272 (1968)Google Scholar
  18. MacArthur, R.H.: On the relative abundance of species. Am. Nat. 94, 25–36 (1960)Google Scholar
  19. —: On the relative abundance of species. Am. Nat. 98, 387–397 (1964)Google Scholar
  20. MacNae, W.: A general account of the fauna and flora of mangrove swamps and forests in the Indo-West Pacific region. In: Advances in marine biology, pp 73–270. Ed. by F.S. Russell and M. Young. New York: Academic Press 1968Google Scholar
  21. Paine, R.T.: Food web complexity and species diversity. Am. Nat. 100, 65–75 (1966)Google Scholar
  22. — The Pisaster-Tegula interaction: prey patches, predator food preference, and intertidal community structure. Ecology 50, 950–961 (1969)Google Scholar
  23. Pielou, E.C.: The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. J. theor. Biol. 13, 131–144 (1966)Google Scholar
  24. Poole, R.W.: An introduction to quantitative ecology, 532 pp. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co. 1974Google Scholar
  25. Preston, F.-W.: The commonness and rarity of species. Ecology 29, 254–283 (1948)Google Scholar
  26. — The canonical distribution of commonness and rarity, parts 1 and II. Ecology 43, 185–215 and 410–432 (1962)Google Scholar
  27. Ricketts, E.F., J. Calvin and J.W. Hedgpeth: Between Pacific tides, 4th ed. 614 pp. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press 1968Google Scholar
  28. Sanders, H.L.: Marine benthic diversity: a comparative study. Am. Nat. 102, 243–282 (1968)Google Scholar
  29. Stephenson, T.A. and A. Stephenson: The universal features of zonation between tidemarks on rocky coasts. J. Ecol. 37, 289–305 (1949)Google Scholar
  30. ——: Life between tidemarks on rocky shores, 425 pp. San Francisco: W.F. Freeman & Co. 1972Google Scholar
  31. Thorson, G.: Life in the sea, 256 pp, New York: World University Library 1971Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Reimer
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Smithsonian Tropical Research InstituteCanal ZonePanama
  2. 2.208 Life Sciences IThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations